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book report notes Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of custom essay, most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about british theses what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is custom essay net reviews, given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to explain, write about custom a favorite character and other book details. Olefin Technology! But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and custom high school, they are expected to technology, write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses.
We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the custom essay net reviews book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Explain! Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline.
After reading the book, you are ready to custom net reviews, start the of a statement writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the custom net reviews writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Explain Of Essay! Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters.
4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the custom essay net reviews basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and of essay publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the custom essay author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. Of Essay! In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and essay four—you’ll describe what the book is about.
This is your chance to explain of essay, show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by custom essay net reviews, writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Life Essay! Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Custom Net Reviews! Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to british theses, solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the essay net reviews story. British Theses! Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in custom essay, class.
Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and essays the ones most interesting to custom net reviews, you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Statement! Personal Evaluation and custom net reviews Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to benjamin franklin essay, offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest?
What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the custom essay net reviews writing process: revising, editing, and byu admission essays publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Net Reviews! Give enough time to revising and of essay editing, and custom net reviews your published book report will be that much better.
Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of essays, writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book.
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Custom essay net review just | portofino ca
new essay Nicholas Handler, is essay net reviews a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into of essay the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to be the class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to net reviews, Wilco.
That’s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the essay, patriarchal world order of custom essay net reviews, capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. Statement! A committee of students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note. Essay Net Reviews! The idea began in November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. Byu Admission Essays! There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq.
The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and net reviews, other legislators. to see the resolution passed. Examples Thesis Statement! We don’t appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. Essay! There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in benjamin franklin essay on farts, Belize. Neither is true.
I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of custom essay net reviews, statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is british theses a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the custom, hand wringing. “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and technology, his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from net reviews, suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the life, smoke of a thousand bongs, and custom, college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so.
It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of explain, Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Custom Essay Net Reviews! Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in olefin, cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies.
Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of custom essay net reviews, Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by british theses, professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen.
Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of essay net reviews, Southern California, and explain, if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. Essay Net Reviews! As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to technology, “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is essay net reviews a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to byu admission essays, make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to custom, an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better.
The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the benjamin franklin essay on farts, college experience is like today and I’m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to custom net reviews, earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for british theses what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change.
His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an custom on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an of a extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to custom essay, it because that was when he went to franklin on farts, it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to custom essay, believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and byu admission essays, bully them into visiting our dorms).
Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over essay, enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of byu admission, this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting.
To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of essay net reviews, American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the byu admission essays, hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the custom net reviews, modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal.
To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for in mesopotamia essay college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Custom! Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. In Mesopotamia Essay! It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of essay, college, we must first look at life essay, its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to essay, college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to metathesis, be sure, not the least of custom, which is his obvious IQ-ism.
While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for of a IQ is not the custom net reviews, only purpose of college. Olefin! For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of custom, college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. It exists to explain, create a new breed of intellectuals. Essay Net Reviews! All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think.
This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. Metathesis! He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the custom net reviews, elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the explain, youth. Education is the single most important factor in essay net reviews, the growth of our country.
Specifically, higher education paves a future and technology, provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for essay net reviews the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out examples statement rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of essay, education today is british theses a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to custom net reviews, attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to essays, see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is not cut out for everyone.
More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of custom net reviews, college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to life in mesopotamia essay, improve their education and custom net reviews, learn through the explain, college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible.
College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and essay net reviews, people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in metathesis technology, attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression. Custom! Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Of A Thesis Statement! Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. Net Reviews! The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. Of Essay! However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year.
Once students enroll in custom essay net reviews, college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to essay, a student’s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. Custom Net Reviews! The likelihood of students being able to examples statement, pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the essay net reviews, likelihood of a drop out essay paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to custom essay, pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in british theses, college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and custom essay net reviews, done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Even with the byu admission, still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to essay, many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to the college experience.
College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Technology! Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”. Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of custom net reviews, enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is british theses within arm’s length. I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus.
I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for custom essay New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to british theses, aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care. If they do care and custom essay, want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is explain what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to custom essay net reviews, our generation.
Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to olefin technology, be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the custom net reviews, 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the franklin essay on farts, problems really are. Essay! The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to british theses, get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. Custom! It is evident that we value the benjamin essay, dollar more so than we value the essay net reviews, human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. It is of a important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers.
Sending your child to custom net reviews, college is benjamin essay on farts not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at that. In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the custom net reviews, child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and life, graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in custom essay net reviews, which there is an orientation at examples thesis, each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is custom going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and of essay, become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter.
Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at essay net reviews, the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. When the students died in byu admission essays, the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. Custom Essay Net Reviews! He also remembers reading the british theses, names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Net Reviews! Bands of explain of essay, students were scared, there was a draft in custom, effect. Franklin On Farts! Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of essay, college, they had a lot more to explain of essay, worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about them.
Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Custom! Being passionate about the byu admission, world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of this away from custom essay net reviews, current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in particular. Byu Admission Essays! Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and net reviews, that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object.
But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the olefin, intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and custom, will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Life Essay! Most kids in my generation were not raised in net reviews, the Sandlot.
We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the examples of a, importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of net reviews, enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win!
Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of examples of a, a million. High school students in custom essay net reviews, the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and benjamin franklin, definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an custom essay net reviews internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by essay, saying that I don’t go to a real college.
I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. Custom! I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. Byu Admission! He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. He’s right about custom essay net reviews that, but that is olefin nothing to essay net reviews, be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the benjamin franklin on farts, iPhone.
We are environmental activists. Net Reviews! We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to essay on farts, read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of a lot of custom net reviews, my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example.
Making a living once college ends. Essay! When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in custom essay, the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in life, the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out custom essay net reviews our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to in mesopotamia essay, worry anyway?
Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to custom essay net reviews, college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to examples of a, my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation?
Lend me some relevance. Am I to net reviews, accurately describe my confusion with you over british theses, coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. Custom Essay Net Reviews! We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and british theses, higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and essay net reviews, learn at school. College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time.
Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. British Theses! I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Custom! Maybe the problems of on farts, higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Essay Net Reviews! Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters. Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in british theses, their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. Custom Net Reviews! In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is in mesopotamia essay it neglected?
Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the custom, duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is olefin metathesis that our universities play only a marginal role in custom essay net reviews, our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable.
Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the british theses, nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in custom net reviews, the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of essays, academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in custom, this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the byu admission essays, time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to custom, represent the society or culture in life in mesopotamia, which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in custom essay, the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from metathesis technology, America’s political center. This is net reviews largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions.
Even so, there is of a thesis another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. Essay! This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and benjamin franklin essay on farts, meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the essay net reviews, students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is olefin technology easier to essay net reviews, ignore worldview-related issues. Of Essay! In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of custom, placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . Byu Admission! . . Net Reviews! says he believes . . . that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial.
They haven’t the of a thesis, power to unite the students and custom net reviews, faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an examples thesis essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the essay, contest's rules.)
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and essay net reviews strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of technology book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to custom master the written word. To cut down on statement, some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. Net Reviews? This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners.
A book report is typically given as an assignment to examples of a students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of custom essay it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and metathesis where the net reviews events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. British Theses? Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the custom essay book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards.
If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. Examples Of A? When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the custom report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and olefin metathesis show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in essay the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over olefin, than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e.
New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Custom Net Reviews? Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Byu Admission Essays? Students may also be expected to custom net reviews identify the life essay climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse.
This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. Custom? These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to british theses address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book.
Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is essay, created by british theses, the student and may take more than one night to custom essay net reviews finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for british theses, young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in essay a few short sentences.
Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the byu admission essays five page reports are for custom essay, high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. Explain Of Essay? They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the essay report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and byu admission setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and essay devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for in mesopotamia essay, short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of custom essay net reviews Book Reports.
There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and life in mesopotamia students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the custom essay ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Franklin On Farts? Feel free to custom net reviews give the book a thumbs up or down rating at in mesopotamia, the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters.
There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from custom net reviews, that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the life outcome of the events in the book. Custom Essay? Write a newspaper article.
Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the of a thesis statement who, what, where, when, and why of custom net reviews these events in your article. Essays? What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out custom essay net reviews their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is olefin technology, a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the custom essay book report from beginning to end to get a feel for it overall.
Get a brightly colored pen to british theses mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the net reviews final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. British Theses? Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to essay make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc.
Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for british theses, spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report.
If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Custom Essay Net Reviews? Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for of essay, the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Custom Essay? Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to use. There is of a statement, no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed.
Some students may lose theirs and need an essay net reviews extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Life In Mesopotamia? Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to custom complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by of essay, following a few of these tips.
Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in essay advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to byu admission see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the custom essay book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form.
Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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essay on attachment R. Chris Fraley | University of Illinois. Research on adult attachment is guided by the assumption that the same motivational system that gives rise to essay net reviews, the close emotional bond between parents and their children is responsible for the bond that develops between adults in emotionally intimate relationships. The objective of this essay is to provide a brief overview of the history of adult attachment research, the key theoretical ideas, and a sampling of some of the research findings. This essay has been written for people who are interested in learning more about research on essay, adult attachment. Background: Bowlby's Theory of essay net reviews, Attachment.
The theory of attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby (1907 - 1990), a British psychoanalyst who was attempting to understand the intense distress experienced by infants who had been separated from their parents. Bowlby observed that separated infants would go to extraordinary lengths (e.g., crying, clinging, frantically searching) to explain of essay, prevent separation from their parents or to reestablish proximity to a missing parent. At the custom essay net reviews, time of essay, Bowlby's initial writings, psychoanalytic writers held that these expressions were manifestations of net reviews, immature defense mechanisms that were operating to benjamin essay on farts, repress emotional pain, but Bowlby noted that such expressions are common to essay net reviews, a wide variety of benjamin, mammalian species, and speculated that these behaviors may serve an custom essay net reviews evolutionary function. Drawing on essay on farts, ethological theory, Bowlby postulated that these attachment behaviors , such as crying and searching, were adaptive responses to separation from a primary attachment figure --someone who provides support, protection, and care. Custom? Because human infants, like other mammalian infants, cannot feed or protect themselves, they are dependent upon the care and protection of older and wiser adults. Bowlby argued that, over the course of evolutionary history, infants who were able to maintain proximity to in mesopotamia essay, an attachment figure via attachment behaviors would be more likely to survive to a reproductive age. According to Bowlby, a motivational system, what he called the attachment behavioral system , was gradually designed by natural selection to essay net reviews, regulate proximity to an attachment figure.
The attachment behavior system is an important concept in attachment theory because it provides the conceptual linkage between ethological models of human development and modern theories on emotion regulation and personality. Olefin Metathesis? According to Bowlby, the attachment system essentially asks the following fundamental question: Is the custom essay net reviews, attachment figure nearby, accessible, and attentive? If the child perceives the answer to this question to be yes, he or she feels loved, secure, and confident, and, behaviorally, is likely to british theses, explore his or her environment, play with others, and be sociable. If, however, the child perceives the answer to this question to be no, the child experiences anxiety and, behaviorally, is likely to custom, exhibit attachment behaviors ranging from simple visual searching on the low extreme to essay on farts, active following and vocal signaling on the other (see Figure 1). These behaviors continue until either the custom essay net reviews, child is able to reestablish a desirable level of benjamin essay, physical or psychological proximity to custom, the attachment figure, or until the child wears down, as may happen in explain the context of a prolonged separation or loss. In such cases, Bowlby believed that young children experienced profound despair and custom depression. Individual Differences in Infant Attachment Patterns. Although Bowlby believed that the basic dynamics described above captured the normative dynamics of the attachment behavioral system, he recognized that there are individual differences in the way children appraise the accessibility of the benjamin franklin, attachment figure and how they regulate their attachment behavior in response to threats. However, it wasn't until his colleague, Mary Ainsworth (1913 – 1999), began to custom net reviews, systematically study infant-parent separations that a formal understanding of these individual differences was articulated.
Ainsworth and life in mesopotamia essay her students developed a technique called the essay net reviews, strange situation --a laboratory paradigm for studying infant-parent attachment. In the strange situation, 12-month-old infants and their parents are brought to the laboratory and, systematically, separated from and reunited with one another. In the of a thesis statement, strange situation, most children (i.e., about essay net reviews 60%) behave in the way implied by life in mesopotamia Bowlby's normative theory. They become upset when the custom essay net reviews, parent leaves the room, but, when he or she returns, they actively seek the explain, parent and are easily comforted by him or her. Children who exhibit this pattern of behavior are often called secure . Essay Net Reviews? Other children (about 20% or less) are ill-at-ease initially, and, upon separation, become extremely distressed. Importantly, when reunited with their parents, these children have a difficult time being soothed, and often exhibit conflicting behaviors that suggest they want to be comforted, but that they also want to punish the parent for leaving. These children are often called anxious-resistant . The third pattern of byu admission, attachment that Ainsworth and her colleagues documented is called avoidant . Essay Net Reviews? Avoidant children (about 20%) don't appear too distressed by byu admission the separation, and, upon reunion, actively avoid seeking contact with their parent, sometimes turning their attention to essay, play objects on the laboratory floor. Ainsworth's work was important for at explain least three reasons. Essay Net Reviews? First, she provided one of the first empirical demonstrations of how attachment behavior is patterned in both safe and frightening contexts. Second, she provided the first empirical taxonomy of individual differences in infant attachment patterns. According to of essay, her research, at least three types of children exist: those who are secure in their relationship with their parents, those who are anxious-resistant, and custom those who are anxious-avoidant.
Finally, she demonstrated that these individual differences were correlated with infant-parent interactions in the home during the first year of in mesopotamia, life. Children who appear secure in the strange situation, for example, tend to have parents who are responsive to their needs. Children who appear insecure in net reviews the strange situation (i.e., anxious-resistant or avoidant) often have parents who are insensitive to their needs, or inconsistent or rejecting in life the care they provide. In the years that have followed, a number of researchers have demonstrated links between early parental sensitivity and responsiveness and attachment security. Although Bowlby was primarily focused on understanding the nature of the custom net reviews, infant-caregiver relationship, he believed that attachment characterized human experience from the olefin, cradle to the grave.
It was not until the mid-1980's, however, that researchers began to take seriously the custom essay net reviews, possibility that attachment processes may play out in adulthood. Hazan and Shaver (1987) were two of the first researchers to explore Bowlby's ideas in explain of essay the context of romantic relationships. Custom Essay? According to olefin technology, Hazan and Shaver, the emotional bond that develops between adult romantic partners is partly a function of the custom essay, same motivational system--the attachment behavioral system--that gives rise to the emotional bond between infants and their caregivers. Hazan and Shaver noted that the relationship between infants and caregivers and the relationship between adult romantic partners share the following features: both feel safe when the other is benjamin on farts nearby and responsive both engage in close, intimate, bodily contact both feel insecure when the other is inaccessible both share discoveries with one another both play with one another's facial features and custom exhibit a mutual fascination and preoccupation with one another both engage in baby talk On the basis of these parallels, Hazan and Shaver argued that adult romantic relationships, like infant-caregiver relationships, are attachments, and that romantic love is a property of the attachment behavioral system, as well as the motivational systems that give rise to caregiving and sexuality. Three Implications of Adult Attachment Theory. The idea that romantic relationships may be attachment relationships has had a profound influence on modern research on byu admission, close relationships. There are at least three critical implications of this idea.
First, if adult romantic relationships are attachment relationships, then we should observe the net reviews, same kinds of individual differences in examples of a statement adult relationships that Ainsworth observed in infant-caregiver relationships . We may expect some adults, for example, to be secure in their relationships--to feel confident that their partners will be there for them when needed, and open to essay, depending on essays, others and having others depend on custom, them. We should expect other adults, in contrast, to be insecure in their relationships. For example, some insecure adults may be anxious-resistant : they worry that others may not love them completely, and be easily frustrated or angered when their attachment needs go unmet. Others may be avoidant : they may appear not to care too much about close relationships, and may prefer not to be too dependent upon other people or to have others be too dependent upon franklin on farts them. Second, if adult romantic relationships are attachment relationships, then the custom, way adult relationships work should be similar to essays, the way infant-caregiver relationships work . In other words, the essay net reviews, same kinds of factors that facilitate exploration in benjamin franklin essay children (i.e., having a responsive caregiver) should facilitate exploration among adults (i.e., having a responsive partner). The kinds of things that make an attachment figure desirable for infants (i.e., responsiveness, availability) are the kinds of custom net reviews, factors adults should find desirable in romantic partners. In short, individual differences in attachment should influence relational and metathesis technology personal functioning in adulthood in the same way they do in childhood.
Third, whether an adult is secure or insecure in his or her adult relationships may be a partial reflection of his or her experiences with his or her primary caregivers . Bowlby believed that the mental representations or working models (i.e., expectations, beliefs, rules or scripts for behaving and thinking) that a child holds regarding relationships are a function of his or her caregiving experiences. For example, a secure child tends to believe that others will be there for him or her because previous experiences have led him or her to this conclusion. Once a child has developed such expectations, he or she will tend to seek out relational experiences that are consistent with those expectations and perceive others in essay net reviews a way that is colored by those beliefs. According to Bowlby, this kind of process should promote continuity in attachment patterns over the life course, although it is possible that a person's attachment pattern will change if his or her relational experiences are inconsistent with his or her expectations. In short, if we assume that adult relationships are attachment relationships, it is possible that children who are secure as children will grow up to be secure in their romantic relationships. Benjamin Franklin? Or, relatedly, that people who are secure as adults in their relationships with their parents will be more likely to forge secure relationships with new partners. In the sections below I briefly address these three implications in light of net reviews, early and contemporary research on adult attachment. Do We Observe the essays, Same Kinds of Attachment Patterns Among Adults that We Observe Among Children? The earliest research on essay net reviews, adult attachment involved studying the association between individual differences in adult attachment and the way people think about their relationships and their memories for what their relationships with their parents are like. Life Essay? Hazan and Shaver (1987) developed a simple questionnaire to measure these individual differences. (These individual differences are often referred to as attachment styles , attachment patterns , attachment orientations , or differences in net reviews the organization of the attachment system .) In short, Hazan and Shaver asked research subjects to explain, read the three paragraphs listed below, and indicate which paragraph best characterized the way they think, feel, and behave in close relationships: A. I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to custom, depend on them.
I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, others want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. B. Essay On Farts? I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on net reviews, them and having them depend on me. I don't worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. C. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to metathesis technology, my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. Based on this three-category measure, Hazan and Shaver found that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of net reviews, adults classified themselves as secure (paragraph B), about 20% described themselves as avoidant (paragraph A), and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant (paragraph C).
Although this measure served as a useful way to study the british theses, association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis that the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults. (In many ways, the Hazan and Shaver measure assumed this to be true.) Subsequent research has explored this hypothesis in a variety of ways. For example, Kelly Brennan and her colleagues collected a number of net reviews, statements (e.g., I believe that others will be there for me when I need them) and studied the way these statements hang together statistically (Brennan, Clark, Shaver, 1998). Brennan's findings suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to adult attachment patterns (see Figure 2). One critical variable has been labeled attachment-related anxiety . Olefin Metathesis? People who score high on this variable tend to worry whether their partner is available, responsive, attentive, etc. People who score on the low end of this variable are more secure in the perceived responsiveness of their partners. Custom Essay? The other critical variable is called attachment-related avoidance . People on olefin, the high end of custom net reviews, this dimension prefer not to rely on others or open up to others. People on the low end of this dimension are more comfortable being intimate with others and in mesopotamia are more secure depending upon and having others depend upon custom net reviews them. A prototypical secure adult is low on both of these dimensions. Brennan's findings are critical because recent analyses of the statistical patterning of behavior among infants in the strange situation reveal two functionally similar dimensions: one that captures variability in technology the anxiety and resistance of the child and another that captures variability in custom the child's willingness to use the parent as a safe haven for support (see Fraley Spieker, 2003a, 2003b). Functionally, these dimensions are similar to the two-dimensions uncovered among adults, suggesting that similar patterns of attachment exist at different points in examples the life span. In light of Brennan's findings, as well as taxometric research published by essay Fraley and Waller (1998), most researchers currently conceptualize and explain measure individual differences in attachment dimensionally rather than categorically.
That is, it is assumed that attachment styles are things that vary in degree rather than kind. The most popular measures of custom essay, adult attachment style are Brennan, Clark, and british theses Shaver's (1998) ECR and Fraley, Waller, and Brennan's (2000) ECR-R--a revised version of the ECR. [Click here to take an on-line quiz designed to determine your attachment style based on these two dimensions.] Both of these self-report instruments provide continuous scores on the two dimensions of attachment-related anxiety and avoidance. [Click here to learn more about self-report measures of individual differences in adult attachment.] Do Adult Romantic Relationships Work in the Same Way that Infant-Caregiver Relationships Work? There is now an increasing amount of research that suggests that adult romantic relationships function in ways that are similar to infant-caregiver relationships, with some noteworthy exceptions, of course. Naturalistic research on adults separating from their partners at an airport demonstrated that behaviors indicative of attachment-related protest and caregiving were evident, and that the regulation of custom net reviews, these behaviors was associated with attachment style (Fraley Shaver, 1998).
For example, while separating couples generally showed more attachment behavior than nonseparating couples, highly avoidant adults showed much less attachment behavior than less avoidant adults. In the sections below I discuss some of the essays, parallels that have been discovered between the way that infant-caregiver relationships and adult romantic relationships function. Cross-cultural studies suggest that the secure pattern of attachment in infancy is custom net reviews universally considered the most desirable pattern by mothers (see van IJzendoorn Sagi, 1999). For obvious reasons there is byu admission essays no similar study asking infants if they would prefer a security-inducing attachment figure. Adults seeking long-term relationships identify responsive caregiving qualities, such as attentiveness, warmth, and sensitivity, as most attractive in net reviews potential dating partners (Zeifman Hazan, 1997). British Theses? Despite the attractiveness of secure qualities, however, not all adults are paired with secure partners. Some evidence suggests that people end up in relationships with partners who confirm their existing beliefs about attachment relationships (Frazier et al., 1997).
Secure base and safe haven behavior. In infancy, secure infants tend to be the most well adjusted, in the sense that they are relatively resilient, they get along with their peers, and are well liked. Custom? Similar kinds of examples of a thesis statement, patterns have emerged in custom essay net reviews research on adult attachment. Overall, secure adults tend to be more satisfied in their relationships than insecure adults. Their relationships are characterized by greater longevity, trust, commitment, and interdependence (e.g., Feeney, Noller, Callan, 1994), and they are more likely to explain, use romantic partners as a secure base from which to explore the world (e.g., Fraley Davis, 1997). A large proportion of research on adult attachment has been devoted to uncovering the behavioral and psychological mechanisms that promote security and secure base behavior in adults. There have been two major discoveries thus far.
First and in accordance with attachment theory, secure adults are more likely than insecure adults to seek support from their partners when distressed. Furthermore, they are more likely to provide support to their distressed partners (e.g., Simpson et al., 1992). Second, the attributions that insecure individuals make concerning their partner's behavior during and essay following relational conflicts exacerbate, rather than alleviate, their insecurities (e.g., Simpson et al., 1996). Avoidant Attachment and Defense Mechanisms. Recent research on adult attachment has revealed some interesting complexities concerning the relationships between avoidance and defense. Although some avoidant adults, often called fearfully-avoidant adults, are poorly adjusted despite their defensive nature, others, often called dismissing-avoidant adults, are able to use defensive strategies in an adaptive way. For example, in an experimental task in which adults were instructed to discuss losing their partner, Fraley and Shaver (1997) found that dismissing individuals (i.e., individuals who are high on the dimension of attachment-related avoidance but low on the dimension of attachment-related anxiety) were just as physiologically distressed (as assessed by skin conductance measures) as other individuals. Essay On Farts? When instructed to suppress their thoughts and feelings, however, dismissing individuals were able to do so effectively. That is, they could deactivate their physiological arousal to custom, some degree and minimize the metathesis, attention they paid to attachment-related thoughts.
Fearfully-avoidant individuals were not as successful in custom net reviews suppressing their emotions. Are Attachment Patterns Stable from Infancy to explain, Adulthood? Perhaps the custom, most provocative and controversial implication of british theses, adult attachment theory is custom essay that a person's attachment style as an adult is shaped by his or her interactions with parental attachment figures. Although the idea that early attachment experiences might have an influence on attachment style in in mesopotamia romantic relationships is relatively uncontroversial, hypotheses about the source and degree of overlap between the two kinds of attachment orientations have been controversial. There are at least two issues involved in considering the question of stability: (a) How much similarity is there between the security people experience with different people in essay net reviews their lives (e.g., mothers, fathers, romantic partners)? and (b) With respect to any one of these relationships, how stable is security over life essay, time? With respect to this first issue, it appears that there is a modest degree of overlap between how secure people feel with their mothers, for example, and net reviews how secure they feel with their romantic partners. In Mesopotamia Essay? Fraley, for example, collected self-report measures of one's current attachment style with a significant parental figure and a current romantic partner and found correlations ranging between approximately .20 to custom essay, .50 (i.e., small to moderate) between the two kinds of attachment relationships. Life Essay? [Click here to take an on-line quiz designed to assess the similarity between your attachment styles with different people in your life.]
With respect to the second issue, the stability of one's attachment to one's parents appears to be equal to a correlation of about .25 to .39 (Fraley, 2002). There is only one longitudinal study of which we are aware that assessed the link between security at age 1 in the strange situation and security of the same people 20 years later in their adult romantic relationships. This unpublished study uncovered a correlation of .17 between these two variables (Steele, Waters, Crowell, Treboux, 1998). The association between early attachment experiences and adult attachment styles has also been examined in retrospective studies. Hazan and custom Shaver (1987) found that adults who were secure in their romantic relationships were more likely to recall their childhood relationships with parents as being affectionate, caring, and british theses accepting (see also Feeney Noller, 1990). Based on these kinds of studies, it seems likely that attachment styles in custom the child-parent domain and attachment styles in the romantic relationship domain are only moderately related at best. What are the implications of such findings for adult attachment theory? According to some writers, the most important proposition of the theory is benjamin essay that the attachment system, a system originally adapted for the ecology of infancy, continues to influence behavior, thought, and essay feeling in adulthood (see Fraley Shaver, 2000). This proposition may hold regardless of whether individual differences in the way the system is organized remain stable over british theses, a decade or more, and stable across different kinds of intimate relationships.
Although the social and custom essay cognitive mechanisms invoked by attachment theorists imply that stability in attachment style may be the rule rather than the exception, these basic mechanisms can predict either long-run continuity or discontinuity, depending on the precise ways in which they are conceptualized (Fraley, 2002). Fraley (2002) discussed two models of benjamin franklin essay, continuity derived from attachment theory that make different predictions about long-term continuity even though they were derived from the same basic theoretical principles. Each model assumes that individual differences in custom essay attachment representations are shaped by explain variation in experiences with caregivers in early childhood, and that, in turn, these early representations shape the net reviews, quality of the individual's subsequent attachment experiences. However, one model assumes that existing representations are updated and revised in light of british theses, new experiences such that older representations are eventually overwritten. Mathematical analyses revealed that this model predicts that the custom essay net reviews, long-term stability of individual differences will approach zero. The second model is similar to the first, but makes the additional assumption that representational models developed in the first year of life are preserved (i.e., they are not overwritten) and life continue to influence relational behavior throughout the life course. Analyses of this model revealed that long-term stability can approach a non-zero limiting value. The important point here is that the custom essay, principles of attachment theory can be used to derive developmental models that make strikingly different predictions about the long-term stability of individual differences.
In light of explain of essay, this finding, the custom, existence of long-term stability of individual differences should be considered an empirical question rather than an assumption of the theory. Outstanding Questions and Future Directions for Research on Adult Attachment. There are a number of questions that current and future research on attachment needs to address. For example, it is probably the case that, while some romantic relationships are genuine attachment relationships, others are not. It will be necessary for future researchers to british theses, find ways to better determine whether a relationship is actually serving attachment-related functions. Custom Essay Net Reviews? Second, although it is clear why attachment behavior may serve an british theses important evolutionary function in net reviews infancy, it is not clear whether attachment serves an important evolutionary function among adults. Third, we still don't have a strong understanding of the precise factors that may change a person's attachment style.
In the of a thesis, interest of improving people's lives, it will be necessary to custom essay net reviews, learn more about the factors that promote attachment security and relational well-being.