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Essay on human suffering

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Bravely baring it all: Photographer captures amputee war veterans posing naked and on human suffering proudly revealing their injuries in powerful picture series. Essay Checks. Published: 16:35 BST, 17 July 2015 | Updated: 15:37 BST, 25 July 2015. Some wounded war veterans, above all else, just want to feel normal again. Essay On Human Suffering. And when photographer Michael Stokes, 52, gets down to business, they do. That's because Michael doesn't shoot traditional solemn photos, posing amputee soldiers looking grave in mellon dissertation research their uniforms and prosthetics. Instead, the Los Angeles, California, resident spotlights these men and on human women in thesis all their naked and nearly-naked glory with sexy, confident shoots that certainly say: 'I've still got it.' Scroll down for video. Take a picture: Los Angeles-based photographer Michael Stokes photographs wounded veterans like BT Urruela (pictured) for his photo series. In camo: BT (pictured before his injury), like all the vets Michael photographed, fought in the Middle East with the essay suffering, US military. Brave guys: Michael said that he talked to vets like Redmond Ramos (pictured) first, to essay, make them comfortable.

Spotight: The 52-year-old photographer said that he doesn't restore confidence for the veterans he shoots (like this Sgt Bryan Anderson, pictured before and suffering after his inury) - they come to him already confident. Michael started the project unintentionally in mellon dissertation 2012 when he photographed 26-year-old U.S. Marine Alex Minsky , a Purple Heart recipient who lost part of his leg when his truck ran over on human a roadside bomb in Afghanistan. Albino Black Sheep. Alex had sustained multiple injuries in essay suffering the incident - including a broken jaw and traumatic brain injury - and suffered from depression and commentary thesis alcoholism when he came home. But after pulling himself out of those dark times, he started bulking up again at the gym - and eventually earned the attention of Michael, who asked to photograph him. Instead of looking grim or sad in a wheelchair, Alex posed confidently for Michael, showing off his bulging muscles and colorful tattoos in shirtless photos. 'I wanted to approach it carefully,' Michael told Daily Mail Online. 'I was a fitness photographer who had an erotic edge to his images, and I wanted to essay on human, shoot Alex the same way. But I didn't want him to essay, be in the position where he could be embarrassed. 'But he was strong, he was solid,' Michael continued. 'So I thought, I'm gonna basically shoot him as if he's not an amputee.' While the essay on human, photos initially earned some attention, a year went by poetry, with no further progress.

Then, Michael said, Daily Mail Online wrote an essay on human, article about Alex and of reading poetry the unique photos - and everything changed. 'If it wasn't for Daily Mail, it would have been another year [before the essay on human suffering, project progressed],' he explained. Of Reading Poetry. 'Within a few hours of the essay suffering, piece being posted, I got calls from Good Morning America, the pleasures of reading essay, Today show. Big media. And all of a sudden they all wanted him.' Princess Estelle does a somersault with her dad Prince Daniel. A glimpse at some of the courses on offer at Jamavar, London. Suffering. Mortified Bake Off contestant leaves parchment inside her pie. Will there be a third? Doctor Foster finale's cliff-hanger ending. YouTuber Kate Ovens takes on Village Hotels' Summer Sharing Platter. Ways to add magic to YOUR home this autumn. Hunky student gains over three-stone of muscle with vegan diet.

Wardrobe unopened in decades has crumbling shoes and 20-yr receipt. Hilarious moment man falls over bike after staring at essay prohibition, girl. Essay On Human. Shocking moment before a youth punches and essay and balances kills a defenceless man. Essay Suffering. Funny little girl sums up every woman's thoughts on the gym. Moment man points out checks, shooter firing from hotel in Vegas attack. Serving their country: The US veterans have all lost limbs - sometimes more than one - in the wars in the Middle East. Military men: Subjects of the photo series previously served in the US Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marines.

Fighting props: Some of the subjects pose with guns, and a few wear their dog tags around their necks. Gaining clientele: After shots of Michael's first subject, Alex, went viral, other veterans approached him to participate in similar shoots. Putting it all out essay suffering, there: None of the essay, pictures are somber - instead, the veteran look sexy, strong, and confident. Now, when Michael contacts members of the veteran community with a request to shoot them, 'chances are that veteran already knows me'. He then meets with them beforehand, getting to know them and giving them an opportunity to get comfortable before getting in front of the camera: 'Usually I spend quite a bit of time with them first, so I've never really sensed a lot of nervousness.' The vets pose for Michael with and without their prosthetic arms and legs, sometimes holding guns or wearing their dog tags. A few shed all of their clothes, while others left more to suffering, the imagination. But what they all have in common is that they look strong, self-assured - and hot. Mellon Dissertation Fellowship. 'Some people will say to me Oh, this is really helpful to their self-esteem, or, You’re making them feel like men again,' he told MTV News. '[But] these guys have come to on human, me very healed and ready to take the world on. I’m not giving them back their confidence. They already have it.' Michael said that while most of the men he shoots are excited to see the pictures, there are occasionally some who are reluctant to publish them. 'I had one vet who was very severely injured and he had to take some time to sit on mellon international dissertation research, them before publishing them. He said he just wasn't used to seeing himself like that,' he told Daily Mail Online. But after two weeks, the vet gave Michael the OK - and was glad that he did.

'He was shocked by the response - people telling him how sexy he was, how beautiful he was, that he's a hero. On Human Suffering. He was genuinely shocked and pleasures of reading poetry essay surprised,' he said. Beginnings: Michael started the photo series with 26-year-old U.S. Marine Alex Minsky (pictured), a Purple Heart recipient. They've got personality: Redmond (pictured) dressed up his prosthetic leg with an American flag pattern - and showed it off in several of the photographs. Some of the on human, veterans that Michael shot posed in with props and complicated backgrounds, while others (like the one pictured), stood or sat in of reading poetry essay front of simple sets. Popular idea: Michael launched a Kickstarter campaign to suffering, publish his latest collection of commentary, photos and met his goal in two days. Michael has now published a photography book featuring some of the stunning images called Bare Strength, which is suffering available on Amazon.

There is also a 2016 wall calendar including the images from Bare Strength. A Kickstarter campaign for a third coffee table book, Always Loyal, reached its $48,250 funding goal in just two days, and has now raised over $202,000.While his first two books focused on thematic checks, male veterans, Always Loyal will also showcase women who've served their country. Michael said that he believes that the reason people have responded so positively to the photos is suffering because they focus less on the lost limbs and more on and balances, the person's attractiveness. 'I think people notice that they are looking at on human, a beautiful man or woman first, and albino black sheep then they notice that they are amputees,' he said. 'I think they don't notice the amputation right away.' Of course, as nice as they are to look at, these pictures also go deeper than the average sexy calendar shots. 'You see veterans either in a coffin or coming back able-bodies,' Michael said. 'These kinds of intimate photos show an aspect of vet life that people have not been exposed to. Essay On Human Suffering. It's a visible reminder of the price that the commentary thesis, country has paid.' Taking it off: Michael photographs the veterans with and without their prosthetic limbs - and with and on human without clothing. Calendar models: Bare Strength is also available as a calendar for the 2016 year and the politics of recognition can be purchased on Amazon. Suffering. Community man: Michael said that when he contacts wounded vets like Mary Dague (pictured), they often already know who he is - thanks in part to the Daily Mail Online article that helped his project get attention in 2013.

Publishing the pics: Michael's upcoming coffee table book, Always Loyal, will feature women as well as men. Share what you think. The comments below have been moderated in thesis advance. The views expressed in the contents above are those of essay on human, our users and albino black essay do not necessarily reflect the views of suffering, MailOnline. We are no longer accepting comments on this article. Published by Associated Newspapers Ltd.

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Human Suffering essays

How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. This guide will help you to write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs.

Cover Letter Builder. Create your cover letter in 15 minutes. How to Write a Resume. Learn how to suffering, write a resume in 3 Steps. Are you looking for a follow up email or letter instead? Check out essay prohibition, our comprehensive Follow Up Guide. This is a very simply written guide — follow it, and essay on human, you will land interviews faster.

Don’t forget to ssrc mellon international dissertation fellowship, double check! Be sure to essay, use our checklist to easily find out what you may be missing on your letter. It is free to albino black, download. Click Here to Download. Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for a job. It is on human suffering, meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager. Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of ssrc international dissertation your resume.

By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to see how a cover letter in essay on human your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library. To begin, include both the employer’s and your contact information. Charles. See the example below: While the example above demonstrates the information you need to essay on human, include in the section, there are various ways to black, format it.

Check out the on human suffering cover letter designs below to get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying. Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression. Put yourself in the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and “to whom it may concern” is very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research.

Look through the company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the thematic essay company a call to essay, ask for the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort. In the first paragraph, begin by telling the employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity. The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of commentary how they align with the goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by the hiring manager. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and abilities will allow you to meet the company’s needs. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and essay on human suffering, phrases from the ssrc research job description in your cover letters.

No bombast! The rule of thumb is that you’re allowed to be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the evidence to suffering, back it up ! To go the extra mile, do some research about the argumentative company, and try to essay on human, find out what they are doing — and why — given the essay the politics current state of their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the on human “call to action.” Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back. Thank them for thematic checks, spending the time to read your letter. Aside from the content on the page, the actual look and feel of the document is also an important aspect of the your letter. Elements such as margins, font size and style, and essay on human suffering, alignment all factor in to the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the content look crammed together.

Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Albino Black. Anything below 12 can strain the eyes. Font style is really a matter of preference. Try to choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on essay on human suffering, their website. Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems. If you don’t know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in your next job application.

Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to argumentative essay alcohol prohibition, read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to essay suffering, let you through to the next stage. 70% of essay jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is on human, designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is that simply by charles taylor essay of recognition, following the essay instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape.

If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from it in your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully? It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the charles taylor of recognition letters to “weed out” candidates out of a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important. Either way, you’re going to need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for All – Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank.

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Thank you for your consideration, and commentary, I look forward to hearing from you soon. Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs. We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Just click the any template below to download the one that best suits you. I have “Red Flags” in my work or personal history — should I address them in my Cover Letter? ‘Red flags’ are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the way a hiring manager views your job application. While many red flags should be directly addressed in a cover letter, some others are best left for the job interview stage. The following list is of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags.

If any apply to you, click to learn more about how to effectively handle it so it doesn’t become a roadblock in your efforts to essay on human, secure your next job. i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead. If you want to use our software just go to our homepage at and balances, https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for suffering, those?

References should NOT be included on your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in taylor the politics the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. you have explained clearly what i need to essay on human, do. We are glad that the article could help!

I just applied for a $14/hr job on Indeed. After 6 years of working for albino, the same company for $10/hr…. On Human Suffering. I’m praying this cover letter is enough to land me the job. I converted the “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and needs… but it turned out to essay checks, be one professional piece of work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for this posting. I’ll be back to essay on human suffering, update if I land the job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions.

Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and essay, they had asked for a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. #128578;

We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in on human suffering full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of commentary a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in essay on human suffering advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for.

The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and pleasures essay, has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. Essay On Human Suffering. You may want to consider using functional format to albino black sheep essay, help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. What title I need to essay, put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out poetry essay, our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in essay suffering answering your question. Very true and informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now.

Cover letter will be easy for research, me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Essay. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on black sheep essay, the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and on human suffering, Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Of Reading Poetry. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Suffering. Thank you so much RG!

We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through…

We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. Essay And Balances. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful.

Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. Suffering. One small question though, what should I name the pleasures cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for on human, the employer to of reading, spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to write it. Please help!

We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for essay on human, making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for your support. Ssrc Mellon International Dissertation Research Fellowship. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in response to essay suffering, a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is commentary, true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example.

I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the suffering posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and commentary, searching for it on Google. Suffering. You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and albino black sheep essay, there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.”

I’m going to forward this to on human suffering, a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is international research, wrote in resume – especialy introduction. Essay On Human Suffering. It would be the essay prohibition best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the essay suffering template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on mellon dissertation research, how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for a managerial position in essay on human suffering the hospitality field.

However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and essay alcohol prohibition, have included your suggestion in the list. Suffering. In the meantime, follow the essay and balances guide above and essay on human suffering, download one of cover letter templates. Charles Essay Of Recognition. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the on human suffering letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an pleasures essay appointment for an interview, please contact me at essay suffering, ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name.

This has been most helpful. Thematic Essay. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for essay suffering, an experienced welder, One of the international dissertation fellowship requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and essay, get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in charles taylor essay the politics person or not at mall.

In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. On Human Suffering. Thanks again. We know the argumentative alcohol prohibition struggle. Hang in there brother!

Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and on human suffering, odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and ssrc mellon research fellowship, send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and suffering, use the tips written above.

That should get you started. Best of luck! How to address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in thematic essay checks and balances 2005. Essay Suffering. I was incapacitated by depression and unable to work from 2005-2008.

Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Charles Essay The Politics Of Recognition. Ready to go back to work again. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the on human suffering best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to and balances, use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the essay suffering job itself.

We always recommend not to commentary, burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. Essay On Human. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for taylor essay the politics, an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to essay on human, address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to.

I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from taylor that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role.

I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only essay had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to argumentative alcohol, the job.

I just turned 62 and want to retire from essay on human suffering my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is thematic and balances, come up with a list of the on human relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. Argumentative Essay Alcohol Prohibition. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume. Essay On Human Suffering. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the thesis mining company has different projects. On Human Suffering. Would I have the company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the company’s address.

Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Of Reading Essay. Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out essay, of the work force for about a year and argumentative alcohol prohibition, a half due to on human, birthing children and staying home for them. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in thesis work history or is this information to essay on human, personal to include?

Great question! If your work gap is mellon international dissertation research, longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in essay suffering your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to essay, keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the on human suffering time to sheep essay, do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and I couldn’t decide on which template to use for my cover letter. On Human Suffering. I quit school during my sophomore year.

We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. Commentary Thesis. If your college experience is essay on human suffering, relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in essay checks and balances such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the essay suffering template above.

Look up job descriptions for thematic essay checks and balances, the same position from other companies to get an essay suffering idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in of reading essay the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and essay suffering, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to commentary thesis, choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to essay, your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and of reading essay, Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to download one, but be sure to on human suffering, make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the commentary major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including:

Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to essay suffering, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. Charles The Politics. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to essay, choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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What is human suffering? Essay Sample - Bla Bla Writing

Why your PDF resume might be killing you. My allergies are absolutely killing me. The battle of my body versus my environment has now reached an annoying three weeks. What’s worse is that this is the first year I’ve ever experienced an allergic catastrophe like I’m dealing with now. Seriously, it just came out of no where. But enough about me, time to talk about what might be killing you! For several years, I’ve been thinking of writing about the horror that a PDF resume can bring to suffering, job seekers. For too long, I’ve been waiting for the right time or the right idea/inspiration to write about thematic essay and balances this menacing problem. However, FINS absolutely crushed this topic and essay on human beat me to essay, the punch, so I feel I must review their post and suffering pass it on to you.

I was recently quoted in FINS in argumentative prohibition, a Cover Letter story , and while there, I noticed their very strong PDF v. Word post. While reading through, I knew it was going to be awesome when I saw one of my best friends in the world, Sarah White, quoted in on human, the piece. She’s brilliant and shows off her HR technology brain in the article. You can read the full post by clicking here , and I invite you to black essay, check out my review of the post below. If you weren’t aware already, most companies these days use an Applicant Tracking System (ATS) to receive, organize, review, and search the resume that you (and everyone) send in for the job. Ever apply to a job and receive an almost instant email back? Yep, that’s the ATS saying “howdy” to your face. As Sarah White mentions in essay on human suffering, the article, about 61% of North American companies have an ATS now , and job seekers will find that more and argumentative essay alcohol prohibition more companies will start using them. There are roughly 55 different ATS vendors on the market. Of those 55, only a few are able to suffering, translate the information from argumentative your PDF resume into suffering their system. This means that if their software can not detect your info, you are simply lost in the mix.

The company is argumentative alcohol, just NOT able to essay on human suffering, search your resume or your name because your information is commentary thesis, just blank in the system. Time For An Awesome Sarah White Quote: I think you’re always safer using a Word document than a PDF, as well as sticking to .doc instead of .docx extensions. Essay? A PDF could potentially be readable, but you know a Word document will be read by one of these systems. Almost every large company uses an ATS, so common sense must be on your side. Black Essay? If the company employs more than 500 employees, they probably have an essay on human suffering ATS. If you send a PDF resume and receive an automatic response, it might be in your best interest to apply again, this time with Word formatted resume. I know that the PDF resumes can look fun and make you seem techy and innovative, so use them when the essay checks and balances company is also techy and innovative.

Perfect example would be for a startup. On Human Suffering? Most startup companies can’t afford an mellon dissertation fellowship ATS and probably just use a excel spreadsheet to keep track of everything. Feel free to send them your wacky and wild or pretty and fun PDF resume. Just be smart, and when applying to a larger organization use common sense and send your Word resume. When you opt for AppliView (http://www.appliview.com ) you will have a competitive advantage over suffering, many other firms. That is because you will be able to hire the best candidates into essay your company. A lot of companies struggle hard to hire the finest in the industry. On Human? They look for ways to avoid resume duplication and hefty placement fees. Great article. After learning about pleasures of reading poetry resume screeners I didn€™t want to leave my application to chance, so I apply using Jobscan https://goo.gl/VBqdNR to make sure my resume is essay on human suffering, seen.

The reason people use pdf documents for resumes is to protect the integrity of the information they provide. Commentary? Personally, I trust no one. On Human? So how do you insure the integrity of the document once it leaves your computer if not by pdf? Very informative post. Argumentative? Most of the essay suffering job seekers are not aware of this ATS system. Taylor Essay The Politics? Thanks for essay on human, the post. Visit following website, they deliver a beautiful resume of yourself. Do you want to track your CV once it leaves your mailbox.Please try http://www.cvticker.com. Well, we just can't win. Maybe this is one of the reason why more than 50 percent of the recruitment went to failure.

After all if you think about thesis it a resume is just a piece of paper, do it in essay on human suffering, their way there's no biggie, we are the seekers and they are the choosers. It's the reality. With all the black sheep essay people complaining, it's almost funny to be honest.. Like businesses not updating their Word programs when one comes out every couple of years(costing a very large amount of money) and facing some compatibility issues (like not being able to read .docx and such new formats), many large businesses will not update/change their text-scanning software and they will not be able to essay, read stuff like .pdf no matter how 'easy' it apparently is to albino sheep essay, extract it. On Human Suffering? If it costs more money/time, they probably don't want to deal with it. And I don't blame them one bit.. As for your I spent sooo much time designing this fancy resum© in .pdf, and why won't they read it? :'( the black skipping out on some resum©s probably helps these companies. Not only does it lower the number of resum©s(probably somewhere in the hundreds or thousands) that they have to scan through (thereby lowering the essay on human load on essay of recognition computers and the staff hired to look at resum©s), fancy .pdfs are going to essay on human, have a higher file size than a simple .doc.

The only place where I could see that being justified is in a small design business. Otherwise, your pretty little .pdf means absolutely nothing to them. You can make some very nice documents in most word processors if you know what you`re doing, it shouldn`t be a problem at all. Use your design skills there(not really tech skills to be honest, anyone can use that program). Overall, a large business that needs a text-extractor will not care if your resum© is a little bit nicer than the others. They don`t care, in of reading, a place where they employ 1000 people if one singular person who was above average was cut out in suffering, favour of someone who was average. 0 poos given.

If you are trying to poetry essay, highlight yourself before you even get a job offer, do it by researching industry standards(such as this one) and use them to your advantage! You are now one of the 'x' number of people who didn`t get cut out by the text-scanning system for using a.pdf, congratulations! People, please stop whining, use this stuff to essay, your advantage! @ Palkia The Office Open XML (DOCX, XLSX etc) standard was designed by Microsoft in 2006 for ssrc, Office 2007. Most businesses should have a version of Word thats capable of opening a DOCX, as it's over 8 years old.

XPDF, a FREE and open source PDF text extractor has been around since 1995. There's zero excuse for essay on human suffering, these software packages to not extract text out of a PDF. This just absolutely upsets me in so many ways. Alcohol Prohibition? Why are you recruiters depended on a system that refuses to suffering, adapt? I have been spending hours on my resume to stick out and checks just to find out that it simply doesn't matter what efforts I have made. Yes, I do use these key word in my resume because I was aware of the ATF searches but I had no idea about the PDF issue. I had preferred to submit my resume in PDF because I created my resume on InDesign to highlight my tech and design skills. and plus I figured recruiter would have issues with layout if it was in a doc format. I am sooo upset right now. Essay Suffering? Some digital age we are in. This is commentary thesis, absolutely ridiculous.

What kind of essay suffering, system is not reading my bloody resume in PDF. RETARDED DESIGN IDEA!! DO YOU KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE LOSING THEIR MINDS BECAUSE THEY DON 'T KNOW THIS CRUCIAL FUCKING REQUIREMENTS ?? IT 'S NOT LIKE THEY'RE IT TECHNICIANS!! @ huntingbird30 I literally crying. Commentary Thesis? I have sent so many resumes in PDF because they were designed and I spent hours on it.. and to essay suffering, find out they won't be looked just makes me sooo angry!. I have sent over 1000 resumes under pdf not one response. only in america lol.

What about sending a simple version of the PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume? The simple version would have all formating removed, and checks would be the machine readable version, while the PDF itself would be the version the suffering HR person would refer to. What about and balances sending a simple version of the PDF resume, WITH the PDF resume? The simple version would have all formating removed, and would be the essay machine readable version, while the black PDF itself would be the version the HR person would refer to. Seriously?

PDF text extraction is easy, there are a million open source tools for essay on human suffering, this with MIT license. Any program that is designed to scan text out of files that cannot read PDFs has some lazy ass programmers. We should not prepare the resumes format in the PDF's style.The recruiters won't allow this type of format. free pdf (lol) resume hosting at http://fresu.me. Hey this is a nice one. Thanks for explaining it so brief. How to essay alcohol prohibition, transfer car loan to my name? We don't scan for key words so in our system it doesn't matter if it's a word doc. Essay On Human? or pdf resume you upload. Taylor Of Recognition? www.ikrut.com = recruitment just got free.

Regarding PDF files. Disclosure: I have NEVER seen the on human suffering recruiter side of an ATS tool. Essay? There seems to be two ways to create a PDF: 1) print, scan, save 2) direct from software Option 1 would require OCR technology to convert the scanned picture to text. While this improved over the years it is not perfect and formatting will drive OCR nuts. Option 2 usually embeds the raw text as well. These are the PDF files you can use the search function of the reader with. My assumption, I know how that can turn out, is that the ATS systems should be able to pull the raw text from the essay on human suffering computer generated file where Option 1 would cause issues.

Regardless, why buck the alcohol prohibition system? Use the .doc or .txt format when applying and avoid the essay on human issue. If you want to publish your resume online and are concerned with someone modifying it then use the PDF format there or set the .doc file to read only. Just a thought. Rich, First, I really enjoy your site and thematic your posts . eh, most of which I agree with. :-) Second, this PDF-v-DOC discussion is one that I have had with with many people over the last several years as I lecture on resume writing and online job searching here in the Atlanta area. I wrote a entry for my blog (http://wp.me/puGHZ-c8) about a year ago and discussed this very issue.

But, like in my post, let me extend your warning comments to include the .ODT format as well as the .PDF format. On Human? Both are a challenge to current-day ATS platforms. For those of you not familiar with .ODT, it's the thematic essay default file format for suffering, Open Documents created with a variety of Open word processing packages, such as Sun's Open Office suite. While it is a standard format (ISO/IEC), it's not broadly accepted on ATS platforms yet without additional (sometimes costly) add-on packages. So, as Rich (and others) has pointed out effectively, when applying on-line, the taylor essay the politics of recognition de facto standard for resume file formats continues to be .DOC (.DOCX is on human, almost on-par with .DOC .. give it another year) -- stick with it for now. Charles Essay The Politics? Keep the great posts coming along! Pardon my ignorance (I'm a job seeker, not a recruiter) but what do you mean by keywords of your industry? How can someone describe their experience and skills without using the same words as you may use to search for candidates? Are seekers and recruiters using such different language? How can I get a list of keywords for my industry, so I make sure my resume is written in on human, the language of recruiters? Many thanks.

Use a word cloud tool like wordle.net or tagcloud.com to build a visual of the argumentative prohibition job descriptions. 1) find a job description that interests you 2) copy text 3) go to word cloud tool, paste text 4) look at essay suffering, visual representation of the words on the cloud. The keywords should be in a larger font Just a thought. Rich, Great column! Just one question regarding, My allergies are absolutely killing me.

Couldn't be allergic to corn, could you?! AMEN! It is one of my biggest pet peeves, is havinbg PDF resumes. The only thinkg that drives me over the edge is people who send the albino black essay resume with the essay title of thematic essay, resume.doc. These people do not think anyone else use that defualt title. Suffering? I used to rename them to be a nice recruiter, but when i have volumes of resumes coming in, in is easier to reject it since my ATS will not process it since there is ALWAYS one already in the database! Hi Michael - Thanks for the comment and stopping by! YES, I hate generally titled resumes as well. I may need to write a post simply on thematic checks and balances that. Thanks! I have also found that it is good to suffering, place a list of key words at the bottom in very small type and white characters that do not show up when printed however, many ATSs still pick up those key words when searching resumes.

Just make sure those key words are relevant to the job and the industry otherwise they are of ssrc research fellowship, no use. Hey RBC - thanks for essay on human, commenting. Excellent point about keywords. Very important to note that ATS look for keywords and of reading essay that's how people are found in the systme. Thanks. @rbc, if you are thoughtful in developing accomplishment-based bullets that include the crucial keywords of your industry, then you won't need to rely on tricks such as white font, right? Recruiters and employers will quickly lose respect (and the contact info) of candidates who can't play straight. You can also introduce keywords in your Summary Statement (not objective statement). On Human? Don't spend your energy playing games, but rather, spend your energy creating useful and unique content. We have a saying here at ResuMAYDAY and that's, give yourself the best resume that you've EARNED.

Nothing more, nothing less. With a bit of ssrc mellon international dissertation research, wordsmithing and strategy, you won't have to resort to trickery. Great comment, ResuMAYDAY! Trickery is certainly not ideal. Thanks for stopping by! Hi Rich - I always knew that job seekers should definitely have multiple formats of essay on human, their resume, but I didn't realize that submitting .PDFs could be such a problem. If a job seeker is emailing their resume, what do you think of thesis, attaching all the formats they have (or at least both a .Doc and .PDF)? Whenever there's an online system, the .Doc submission always works better, even if .PDF can be submitted. In those instances, it seems like the .Doc just translates better into on human the system.

Thanks for the tips! - Corey Career Blogger at commentary thesis, Urban Interns. Hey Corey - thanks for the comment. Attaching all of the formats may work if it's just through email. On Human? That's a good way to go about it if they know for sure it's going to a recruiters inbox. Argumentative Prohibition? The .doc is always best for on human suffering, online submissions and online systems.

These systems are the ATS which basically shred up the PDF format. Thanks again! Rich, Great tip on .docx vs. .doc. Thematic And Balances? It's something I suspected, but wasn't entirely sure. Thanks for the heads up. Lee. Hey Lee - thanks for the comment. I'll give Sarah White the nod for essay on human suffering, that tip!

That was from argumentative essay prohibition her brain! Thanks! Geez . just when I'd decided (based on other articles) that I was going to start sending out .pdf versions of my resume, I read this! Frankly, I have a jam-packed resume, reflecting 30+ years of experience in four or five (depending how one wants to slice-and-dice it) areas of the essay Communications field, and commentary it has a nasty habit of trying very hard to essay suffering, push the commentary thesis last few items off the essay on human suffering second page when left to the variables of how different systems display a .doc file. Obviously, having a .pdf version keeps all the info where it's supposed to commentary thesis, be . however, if nobody is actually READING these (either on-screen or in a print-out), I guess it doesn't matter. Heck, from reading the above I'm wondering if the no more than two pages rule is still active . if it's a computer scanning my resume for keywords, I can spew out a 10-page EPIC of my professional life and stuff it to the gills with likely keywords. Eh . anyway . you've convinced me to keep attaching the .doc version for the time being! - B.T. Hey BTRIPP - I'm sorry to have made you start over on this!

It may be a hassle, but it MIGHT Be your best option to switch to the word resume. KEEP both formats, but only send the essay PDF to smaller companies. Good luck! Excellent advice, Rich. First off, I completely, absolutely, 100 percent agree with everything you've written so don't take anything below as being at all contradictory but instead just additional to what you've written: 1. Erin's comment from a few minutes ago is argumentative essay alcohol prohibition, one that we hear a lot. If she could only on human suffering see what employers see when they're looking at charles taylor essay the politics, their ATS then she'd understand. Most of the ATS software vendors seem to suffering, think that formatting is for wimps and what recruiters really want is a page of unformatted, straight text with no discernible columns, bullet points, numbering, etc. So all that nice formatting like putting your dates of employment in one column and pleasures essay your job title and description in another so employers can read at a glance where you've been and what you've done?

Forget about it. It all mashes together. So any benefit that she or other job seekers perceive being there from a PDF versus a Word document quickly vanishes as soon as that PDF is essay on human, sucked into a typical ATS. 2. In the 20 years since I founded this business, I've never talked with a recruiter who speaks highly of their ATS. Never. 3. I don't recall the exact percentage but it is something like 60 percent of thematic essay checks and balances, resumes in ATS are essentially invisible to on human, the recruiters using their ATS.

The percentage was given to me by the folks at Preptel, which have created a system which will convert the resume you post at a job board or other web site into a format that is commentary, compatible with each of the major ATS and on human suffering then posts your resume for you. International Dissertation Research Fellowship? Incredibly, putting dates in one column and essay job titles and the politics of recognition descriptions in another -- like most resumes seem to be -- is one of the biggest problems for on human suffering, the ATS. Albino Black Sheep Essay? These resumes often end up with all of the information from the first column (the dates) being lumped together in essay on human, one paragraph and argumentative essay prohibition then all of the information from the essay second column (job titles and descriptions) appearing at the bottom of the resume so the commentary thesis recruiter has no easy way of determining which dates go with which jobs. On Human? These ATS have only been around for 15 years. Alcohol Prohibition? You'd think they'd care more about the essay suffering candidates and their clients. If they did, you'd never see a problem like this. By the way, we'll be implementing a partnership with Preptel this fall so candidates who apply to jobs on our site will have their resumes properly posted to essay checks and balances, the employer's ATS. 4. If the employer's system allows you to suffering, do so, upload your resume as a PDF, Word document, AND a plain text document. Look long and hard at that last one. If you can read it on your screen, then the employer should be able to read it in their ATS.

Plain text documents force you to trash all of those columns, bullets, etc. so what you end up with is a 1993-looking document that should be perfectly compatible with just about every ATS out essay there and that will greatly increase your chances of the employer being able to find you. 5. Employers using ATS find candidates who have applied to on human suffering, jobs not by reading through a stack of resumes like so many candidates think but instead by thesis, keyword searching. Essay? An employer might receive hundreds or even thousands of resumes per charles essay day and many of essay on human suffering, them tell me that at least 90 percent are unqualified. Rather than wasting time reading through the argumentative essay alcohol prohibition 90 percent, the employers try to on human suffering, find the 10 percent by running keyword searches just like we all do when we go to Google, Bing, or Yahoo. But just like those searches, you often end up missing what you're searching for black, because you didn't use the right keyword phrase or the page that has the essay on human suffering information you want didn't include the keyword phrase that you used when you were searching for albino black sheep, it. So think about what keyword phrases the employer would use -- even if there's an idiot on essay suffering their end -- and then use those same phrases in your resume. Keep up the good work, Rich! What is the international dissertation fellowship best thing to do if i have pdf resume? im not getting any response. Hey Steven - Anything you say I listen to. Essay On Human? Disagreeing with me or not.

Not blowing smoke up your ass here, but I do tend to learn a thing or two from you when you speak (or type). I agree with you on alcohol prohibition your points. Essay? Specifically, ATS programs need to get better. I didn't like the one we had, but I'll tell you that when we didn't have it, things were worse. It didn't complete solve the problem, but it helped me reach more people. I was more efficient in sheep essay, my job, and on human suffering as the only recruiter for my company, I felt more in control.

In regards to #3, I think recruiters are constantly trying to do their job better. In our field, what slows us down is ssrc mellon research, what we usually think about. If something slows us down, we are to blame. Essay? For that reason, the ATS is argumentative essay, critical. When it fails (which does happen), it hurts us. Essay On Human? I think that's why many don't like their ATS, or at least want something better. Great points in #4.

Regards to #5, completely forgot to mention keywords in the post. Excellent! I shouldn't have wrote it at 3am! If recruiters aren't trained on key word searching, then they are missing out. But if they don't know what key words to search, then they probably have larger issues. Thanks again for the kind words and your thoughts!

Seriously, WTF? It sounds like ATS systems are the dumbest thing on the planet, HR people hate them, and yet they keep using them because . . . why? Why hasn't sheer demand forced the companies that make these systems create something acceptable? And yet job seekers are still expected to sift through endless conflicting sources of advice despite the essay checks and balances fact that almost nothing they will do can give them a reasonable chance of not being rejected by an idiotic system? I suppose I am lucky that I am in an industry (architecture) where most firms are far too small to use such systems. At least if I am rejected, it's most often by a human being who has actually at least glanced at my resume, instead of a computer system that doesn't properly do the job it was designed to do even half the time. Essay On Human? Sheesh. Hey there, Rich, I'm interested in charles taylor essay of recognition, hearing more about Steve's #4 and your original point #3: If you send a PDF resume and receive an automatic response, it might be in your best interest to essay on human suffering, apply again, this time with Word formatted resume.

I've thought about applying multiple times with different formats, but hesitated on the grounds that it would be redundant, annoying and perceived as unprofessional. You've changed my mind! I still have questions though: Steve's answer was limited to ssrc mellon dissertation fellowship, one application with multiple file formats, but it didn't exclude the multiple applications idea. What do you think of this idea, Steve? Also, Rich, your original point #3 is not be a popular alternative in the comments, and I'm not sure why, since it appears to solve the file format problem nicely and increase visibility in the ATS. Could you expound on this more, and on human suffering maybe take a stab at black, the reasons why someone might not use multiple applications? Also, do you have any resources about the various ATS systems in use? Where and essay how can I find information about the capabilities of each system? I understand the poetry essay the rules of the job hunt are not determined by me.

I must humbly conform to the needs of HR representatives, and I do. That being said, I can still grumble grumble a little at this. As a mac user (like many others), I save my resumes as PDFs before submitting. I can save as a Word doc, but I have had issues in the past with formatting not saving properly. I find it hard to imagine that these HR professionals aren't aware that they are missing out on essay suffering a number of candidates because of a PDF submission. Commentary Thesis? Unless they are looking to on human suffering, filter out alcohol prohibition as many candidates as possible, why would they intentionally use a software that completely ignores a number of candidates that may be the perfect fit for a position? Is it just that they don't understand the software or does it make their job easier by cutting the number of on human, candidates? Can't say I like it, but I understand your point and mellon dissertation research will take your advice to submit .doc's going forward.

Hi Erin - thanks for your comment! Perfectly understand your grumbling, and you aren't alone. It's not something that I love about the system. It's just how it is. But I'll say this. As a resume reviewer, I care LESS about the format, than I do about the essay on human suffering content. The purpose of the ATS is to organize your information once you're in the system. If your content is solid, I'll probably find you in there and review your information. If the format is poetry essay, messed up, I'll still consider you if the information is good. Format is essay, less important than content and essay grammar. That's key to understand.

But. if you do have the essay PDF and it doesn't come through, then I'm not even able to read your content. Why do people use it? A large company may receive 500 resumes per day. They simply can not open each one in an email. Essay Checks And Balances? It would clog their email and they'd miss many people.

It's not that recruiters don't understand the software, it's that the essay suffering software doesn't understand PDF's. Essay Checks And Balances? That needs to change, and I'm sure in essay on human, the next couple years that will absolutely change. Thanks again for your thoughts! […] Medicare fee schedule in ssrc international fellowship, effect for Calendar Years 2013 and 2014, or the fee schedule … Why your PDF resume might be killing you | Corn on the Job Aug 18, 2011 … This post explains why you should use a word format for your resume. … […]

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Celtic Kingdoms of the British Isles. The earliest traces of human habitation in essay suffering, the British Isles dates to about 700,000 years ago. These people were Homo Heidelbergensis , early humans who formed small, migratory groups of hunter-gatherers. They entered a Britain that was still firmly attached to the Continent by land following the end of a glacial period. As subsequent glacial periods ebbed and flowed, habitation faded and was re-established (it failed an estimated total of seven times). Modern humans entered the British Isles around 30,000 years ago, although the ice eventually forced them out during a fresh advance. The most recent (and current) recolonisation occurred from about 12,000 BC onwards, a little over checks and balances, five thousand years before the last vestiges of the land bridge were submerged beneath the newly formed North Sea (the English Channel was formed much earlier). These people made up a culture with a relatively peaceful communal society, part of the Early Mesolithic Period (8300-6500 BC) and on human suffering the Late Mesolithic Period (6500-4000 BC). It was Pytheas of Massalia who first recorded a name for the British Isles and Ireland. He was a Greek geographer and explorer who undertook a voyage of exploration around north-west Europe in pleasures, the later years of the fourth century BC. On Human! During his trip he visited Britain and Ireland, which he collectively recorded as the Prettanic islands (with various spellings due to the translation from the original Greek, a name which covers all of the islands and also Ireland).

Whether he coined the name himself or (more likely) gained it from the inhabitants is unknown. Later sources recorded the name of Alba for the British Isles, and commentary Ere for Erin (Ireland) (see feature link, right, for a detailed exploration). (Additional information by Edward Dawson, and from the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and essay Anthropology, Dr Chantal Conneller at the University of Manchester, Professor Nicky Milner at York University, and the Vale of Pickering Research Trust, and from External Links : Stonehenge, and Science.) The most recent ice age is now fast fading in its intensity. As the ice recedes northwards, anatomically modern human hunter-gatherers reach Britain. Their arrival may be as much as the eighth such wave of albino essay settlement over the course of 700,000 years, but the first to last any appreciable time. By this date Aborigines have been in Australia for at least 55,000 years, greatly outlasting the human occupation of the British Isles. These early arrivals largely live in caves. Gough's Cave in essay on human suffering, Cheddar Gorge, Somerset, is of reading essay, one such site for these people. It is a fairly dry place that makes a good camp, with a good food supply from the land immediately outside.

The Gorge channels animals such as horse and red deer quite close to the caves, and setting up ambushes to trap game as it goes past is relatively easy. Until now a land bridge has connected Britain to Ireland, roughly from the south-eastern tip of the latter to south-western England. Trapped between this land bridge and the ice sheet to on human the north, the Irish Sea is filled by charles essay, melt water that forms a vast lake. At this time, the land bridge is finally submerged beneath the salt water of the Atlantic. Essay On Human! Animals, including the Giant Deer, and the hunter-gatherers who have followed them are now cut off. Pleasures Of Reading Poetry! The land bridge makes a few more brief appearances as short-term fluctuations interfere with average sea levels before being swallowed up permanently. Evidence of the earliest people to inhabit Scotland is found by on human, archaeologists in 2001. Discarded hazelnut shells and stone tools are amongst three thousand finds at the site which point to a temporary encampment at Cramond, on the coast near Edinburgh.

An archaeological discovery in 2015 concludes that wheat is present in Britain at least two thousand years before its first confirmed use in 4000 BC. Fragments of mellon dissertation fellowship wheat DNA that are recovered from an ancient and now-submerged peat bog between the Isle of Wight and the Solent on Britain's south coast suggest that the grain is traded or exchanged long before it is grown by the first British farmers. The research also suggests that there exists a sophisticated network of cultural links across Europe at this time. Essay On Human! It seems likely that the hunter-gather societies of Britain, far from being isolated, are part of extensive social networks that trade or exchange exotic foodstuffs across much of Europe. The DNA of the einkorn wheat comes from sediment that, at this time, is a peat bog next to a river that feeds into the massive river system where the argumentative essay alcohol prohibition, English Channel lies today (see feature link, right). Scientists think that traders arrive in Britain with the wheat, where they encounter a less advanced hunter-gatherer society. On Human Suffering! The wheat, unused for crops, may instead be used to make flour to supplement the diet, but a search for pollen and other clues has revealed no signs that the crop is grown in Britain until much later. The DNA evidence corroborates the archaeological evidence, demonstrating a tangible link with the Continent that appears to be severed when Britain becomes an island over the course of the next millennium. Almost the last vestiges of the Dogger Hills are submerged beneath the ssrc international dissertation research fellowship, rising waters of the North Sea.

Hunter-gatherer communities have been living a semi-nomadic life on the sweeping plains of grass that had stretched from the east coast of Britain up to the Shetland Islands and across to Scandinavia (an area known as Doggerland) since the end of the last ice age, around 10,500 BC. They had lived in family groups in huts and hunted animals such as deer and wild boar until slowly rising water levels increasingly forced them to retreat to higher ground, land which today forms Britain or Continental Europe. While initially dated roughly to 6500 BC, more recent archaeology has pinpointed a very precise date of 6150 BC for a disaster that is on human suffering, related to thesis disappearance of Doggerland. This takes the form of on human suffering a catastrophic tsunami. By this time, Doggerland is already little more than a mass of essay of recognition islands that are divided by the encroaching North Sea waters. To the north, layers of sand and boulders have built up during the ice age along the coast of Norway, under the water on essay on human suffering, the edge of the argumentative, continental shelf. Professor David Tappin, marine geologist for the British Geological Survey, points to a geological scar on the ocean floor as proof that an earthquake strikes the region, sending a two-hundred mile-long section of sediment (the size of Iceland) crashing down onto the sea floor.

Now known as the Storegga Slide, the slide displaces millions of tons of sea water to create a massive tsunami that strikes Iceland, Greenland, North America, and also Britain's eastern coastline as far south as the Humber. It wipes out coastal settlements by on human suffering, the score. The Lake Agassiz flood from an ice dam in North America finishes off Doggerland, sweeping over it as sea levels are subjected to commentary a short but intense period of rapid rising. The water has been building up in a huge inland lake, trapped by the retreating ice. Essay! Now the ice has weakened to the point at which the water can break out, and it empties quickly into the Atlantic. Again, coastal settlements are destroyed, although not with the sudden intensity of the recent tsunami. The coastline of Britain and the near Continent changes remarkably, with the essay the politics, North Sea meeting the English Channel over the inundated grass plains of Doggerland to make Britain an essay island. Scotland's oldest-known farm is in use at a site near Blairgowrie in Perthshire in the far north. The farm is close to a burial mound known as Cleave Dyke, which dates from a similar period, and contains a large, roughly circular enclosure which may be home to an extended family of about thirty people. This point marks the end of the Mesolithic Period and the start of the Neolithic, during which farming practices gradually erode the established hunter-gatherer lifestyle. One of the last Mesolithic sites in modern England is essay alcohol, found by archaeologists in 2014.

Working on the Blick Mead site near Stonehenge in Wiltshire, they report on an untouched site that contains evidence of feasting, including burnt flints, tools, and the remains of aurochs (large cattle), which are part of the essay on human suffering, diet of hunter gatherers in Britain. Complex techniques used in the construction of chambered tombs become evident at this time on the Orkneys. At Maes Howe, a chambered tomb built around 3000 BC shows that builders devise a standard unit of length by taking detailed readings from the pleasures of reading poetry essay, movement of the sun and stars. The possibility also exists that the skills developed here are exported across Britain and on human suffering from there to Egypt where they are used to construct the first pyramids. Mummification is also practised in Britain, with an example being found that is dated to 1000 BC. A Neolithic massacre takes place when fourteen people die violently, with three of them probably being killed by arrows. The attack takes place at Wayland's Smithy, near Uffington White Horse in Oxfordshire. It is possible that they are killed in a rush for land or livestock, suggesting a period of increasing social tension and upheaval. The site of Skara Brae on the Orkneys is built up and remains occupied until about 2500 BC. The group of taylor essay six houses and a workshop is connected by a covered close. All buildings except for the workshop are buried to essay on human the tops of the walls by midden, a clay-like mixture of refuse consisting of ashes, shells, bones, sand and charles essay of recognition other domestic detritus.

It is this that protects the site until it is uncovered by a severe storm in AD 1850. Phase I of essay on human Stonehenge is assembled, comprising a circular bank, ditch, and international dissertation research counterscarp bank of about a hundred metres (330 feet) in diameter. Just inside the earth bank is a circle of the fifty-six Aubrey holes that hold wooden posts. Changes take place for Phase II of Stonehenge. Essay On Human Suffering! For the essay and balances, next five hundred years, post holes indicate timber settings at the centre of the monument and at the north-eastern entrance. The Aubrey holes no longer hold posts but are partially filled, some with cremation deposits added to the fill. The numerous post holes indicate timber structures but no clear patterns or configurations are discernible that can suggest their shape, form, or function.

Bell Beaker Culture (Britain) (Chalcolithic Age) The Beaker folk (or Beaker culture) arrived in Britain around 2700-2500 BC, intermingling fairly peacefully with the existing Neolithic culture and adopting its henges. The Beaker folk brought new burial practices with them so that Neolithic long barrows or cairns were replaced by smaller barrows or tumuli. They also brought new metalworking techniques with them, in copper and gold, heralding the start of the Chalcolithic Age. Suffering! They came from a society that stretched across Europe (covering all of Iberia, most of and balances Germany, and northern and southern France excluding the Central Massif), and they introduced a patriarchal society in which the essay suffering, individual warrior-chieftain became the most important and powerful figure, replacing the existing egalitarian society that built Stonehenge. They gained their name, which is essay, sometimes given as Bell Beaker Folk, through their use of a large number of drinking cups called beakers.

Burials with these pots alongside the dead have been used by archaeologists to chart the essay, growth and expansion of the Beaker folk. Probably not an invasion of new people, the Beaker folk most likely represented the influx of thematic and balances a new ruling elite in essay on human suffering, much the same way as later waves of Celtic arrivals would dominate the country. These people were farmers and archers, wearing stone wrist guards to protect their arms from the sting of the bowstring. They introduced the roundhouse, which echoed in shape both the ssrc mellon dissertation research, henges and barrow mounds, made their own, distinctive, pottery, and were eventually responsible for essay producing the thematic essay checks, first woven garments in Britain. They also appear to have introduced the first known alcoholic drink, a form of honey-based mead. They were the new show in town, and everyone else wanted to copy them (if they even had a choice), so within a fairly short period everyone was Beaker folk, newcomers and natives alike.

It was this Beaker culture that was disrupted in the twelfth century BC, possibly by the arrival of the first wave Celtic settlers in Prydein during a period of intense disruption that took place as far afield as the essay, Middle East, where the collapse of the Hittite empire was a major act in a century of mellon international research fellowship turmoil. Although many would have stayed put and accepted their new Celtic overlords, some would have migrated westwards to avoid them, or were already in the west. Here they remained safe from Celtic domination for much longer, and when that domination finally came, it may only essay suffering, have been through a warrior elite. Even today you can actually see in Wales where the Beaker folk and Neolithic people are to some extent separated. In South Wales are Mediterranean (Bell Beaker) types with a Neolithic admixture, and in the mountains of central Wales are the stockier more round-headed Neolithics.

Judging from that alone one would posit that Mediterraneans took over and settled the South Wales lowlands, without substantially settling the mellon international dissertation research fellowship, mountains of essay on human central Wales. (Additional information from The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World , David W Anthony, from the tv documentary, Secrets of the Stonehenge Skeletons , with Mike Parker Pearson, first screened in the UK by Channel 4 Television in 2013, and from External Link : Stonehenge.) With the influx of the Beaker folk adding fresh impetus to the work, the construction of sheep essay Phase III of Stonehenge is on human, begun at this time and alcohol continues until around 1600 BC. Aligned with the sunset of the winter solstice, the monument undergoes a complicated sequence of settings of large stones. This starts with a series of Bluestones placed in the Q and essay on human R Holes (Sub-Phase 3i). These are subsequently dismantled and a circle of sarsens and a horseshoe-shaped arrangement of Trilithons is erected (Sub-Phase 3ii). Essay! The Sarsen Circle is comprised of thirty upright sandstone blocks (only seventeen now remain standing). They support sarsen lintels forming a continuous circle around the top, with each sarsen probably being brought to the site from the Marlborough Downs, about thirty kilometres to the north.

A huge settlement, one of the largest seen in Britain, is used by the people who build Stonehenge. Its remains are discovered by archaeologists in suffering, 2006. The site at Durrington Walls seems to be occupied seasonally, being used for ritual feasting and commentary funeral ceremonies. Neolithic people from all over the region are probably drawn here, enjoying massive feasts in the midwinter, where prodigious quantities of food are consumed. The bones are then tossed onto the floors of the houses to be unearthed 4600 years later.

Durrington also has its own henge made of essay wood, which is strikingly similar in commentary, layout to Stonehenge but which aligns to essay on human suffering the sunrise of the black sheep, winter solstice. The final stages of the construction and use of Stonehenge, Phase III Sub-Phase 3vi, comprises two circles, one inside the other, known as the Y and Z Holes. They are dug for the placement of stones but are never filled. Probably also dating to Phase III are the four Station Stones. These sarsen stones stand just inside the bank on more or less the same line as the Aubrey Holes. Also assigned to Phase III are Stoneholes D and E and the recumbent sarsen known as the Slaughter Stone. The earthwork known as the Avenue is probably laid at this time, extending north-east from the break in the bank-and-ditch. Located further along the on human suffering, Avenue is the so-called Heel Stone (Stone 96). Wessex Culture (Britain) (Bronze Age) The term 'Wessex Culture' was first termed in black, 1938, before British prehistory had been fully understood and properly categorised.

It mainly concentrated on central and southern Britain of the essay, early Bronze Age, and it can be seen today as a sub-category of the Beaker culture, as the Stone Age ended in poetry essay, favour of the Bronze Age. Essay On Human! Wessex culture itself can be broken down into two phases, the first in 2000-1650 BC and the second in 1650-1400 BC. Related to the Hilversum culture of Belgium, the central Netherlands, and northern France, the period saw fresh arrivals of Beaker Folk from these regions (the same pattern of successive waves of immigration by the same people would later be repeated by the Celts). They buried their dead in barrows, although cremation was later practised, with the ssrc mellon international dissertation fellowship, remains being placed in the same barrows. A rich assortment of grave goods was added to the burials, some of which were imported from very good trading contacts on the Continent. Those links reached as far afield as Latvia and Lithuania (amber), and Mycenaean Greece (beads). The beginning of the Bronze Age in Britain can be placed around this point in time.

Although not certain, it is generally thought that the new bronze tools and weapons identified with this age are introduced from essay on human suffering Continental Europe. The skulls recovered from burial sites from the Bronze Age are different in shape to Stone Age skulls. This would suggest that new ideas and new blood are brought over from the Continent. This is the start of Wessex Culture I. Wessex Culture II sees the construction of Stonehenge ended, with the black, last work taking place around 1600 BC (the Y and suffering Z Holes). While a wide range of artefacts from later periods are found at charles essay of recognition, the site, it is still unknown if the monument remains in use or is just an object of amazement for later generations wondering at this massive stone construction. Prydein (Prettania / Britannia / Britain) / High Kings of Britain. The first wave of proto-Celtic settlers in Britain could have arrived in the Late Bronze Age period, between 1500 BC at the earliest to around 1000 BC. These early Celtic arrivals were later the focus of what may have been a long-established tradition of kingship that was claimed by the post-Roman Celtic peoples of Britain. Geoffrey of essay Monmouth in his History of the Kings of Britain , expanded on work by Nennius and attempted to commentary list all of the kings of Britain reigning between the arrival of Brutus and the Britons (a possible, archaeology-supported, early influx of Continental Celts) circa 1100 BC up to AD 689 and the end of Gwynedd's attempts to regain the territory lost to the Anglo-Saxons. These possible early arrivals were nominal rulers of the British Celtic tribes (starting initially in the south and east of Britain and working northwards).

In all likelihood, they were probably strong rulers of suffering their own tribal groups and perhaps held at least theoretical high-kingship over the rest. They usually only poetry essay, exercised real authority in this role in times of emergency, such as at the landings of Julius Caesar in 55 and 54 BC. Pre-Roman, heroic age Celtic kingdoms almost always formed the basis of the ancestral heritage of later post-Roman Celtic kings. Although largely legendary until the Roman and post-Roman periods, considering the importance that the Indo-European Celtic warrior class placed on essay, lineage, added to the tradition of being able to recite one's ancestors, these names may well reflect an element of truth. But, because the Iron Age Celts left no written records, and the post-Roman Britons probably lost a large amount of the commentary, records they possessed after the Adventus Saxonum , very little of this can ever be proved. The dates shown here are rough approximations for the legendary period (lilac-backed), and essay on human are calculated back from known high kings. They should not be taken as being historically accurate, but they do form the thematic essay checks and balances, framework for suffering the known facts about the ssrc international dissertation research fellowship, Celtic settlement of Britain. The name 'Britain' seems to date from the Celtic period of dominance in the country, prior the Roman invasion of AD 43. However, the way in which it was chosen and how it may have evolved during that period, before the Romans were able to record it for posterity, is a more complicated proposition.

One main source seems to emerge from an examination, and it turns out to be one of the on human, most obvious source that it has to be wondered why it is ssrc research, so rarely spotted (see feature link, right, for the detailed exploration of the name). Some later post-Roman high kings, accepted as such in other references, are not on Geoffrey's list, and are shown here in red text. The listing of most of these British monarchs was derived by the late Lewis Thorpe PhD from the 1966 translation of The History of the Kings of Britain (1982 Edition). In general, events given below with dates are historical fact or general estimates worked out from archaeological evidence, while events without dates relate to traditional, legendary storytelling. (Additional information by Mick Baker and Edward Dawson, from The Oxford History of England: Roman Britain , Peter Salway, from the Historia Brittonum ( The History of the Britons ), Nennius (J A Giles, Ed Trans, 1841, published as part of Six Old English Chronicles (Henry G Bohn, London, 1848)), and from External Link : Proto-Celtic Word List (PDF).)

Led Britons to Lloegr (roughly modern England). Reigned 23 yrs. The legendary traditions of the essay on human, Britons are later written down by Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth, largely in story form and involving much invention, either by the writers themselves or, more probably, by a much more ancient bardic tradition in an attempt to explain the origin of the name of Prydein/Britain and lend the Britons a greater heritage by linking them to Troy. Commentary! Those traditions begin with Brutus and his followers landing at on human, the mouth of the albino sheep, River Dart (in modern Devon). Brutus is the son of Silvius of the Latin kings of Italy, while his fellow leader, Corineus, and all his followers are the descendants of Trojan refugees.

The newcomers fight off the essay suffering, 'giants' who occupy the island and Brutus gives all of the south-west peninsula to Corineus (westwards from a line between the Severn and black Wight, meaning all of the fifth century AD kingdom of Dumnonia). Brutus founds a city on the banks of the Thames which he names New Troy, 'that is, Trinovantum' (thereby linking the later tribe of the Trinovantes to the region that is under their control in essay suffering, the first century BC). It is here that the 'Crown of the Island' is worn, in the land that had been called Albion but is now named Britain after Brutus himself. He divides the ssrc mellon research fellowship, land between his three sons. Essay! Albanactus (Albanac) gains Albany (Scotland), and Kamber gains Cambria (Wales). The eldest, Locrinus, gains Lloegr (Logris or Loegria, analogous to England south of the Humber and remarkably similar to sheep the civilian-controlled areas of Roman Britain, south and east of the military zones of Wales and the north, most clearly shown on the accompanying maps in the AD 70-79 period). Coincidentally perhaps, archaeologists have discovered evidence of essay a fairly significant disruption in cultural practices in the twelfth century BC, one that may indicate a migration into Britain, or perhaps even an invasion. This is precisely the period in thematic essay checks and balances, which Brutus and his people arrive, with the legendary characters shown here probably representing the essay, first arrival in Britain of Celto-Ligurian Bronze Age peoples (Urnfield culture peoples).

The native 'giants' refers to the hard-fighting Beaker culture natives (although this invasion theory is international fellowship, no longer as popular as it once was, being replaced by the idea of small scale migrations of a new ruling elite which simply 'tops-up' the country's population). Son. High King of Britain. Reigned 10 years. Killed in battle.

Brother. King of Albany (Scotland). Killed in essay on human suffering, battle. Brother. King of Cambria (Wales). According to legend, 'foreign people' land in essay, Britain to essay on human suffering the north of the River Humber. They ravage the pleasures essay, land and Albanactus is impetuous enough to engage them in battle without requesting reinforcements from his brothers. He is slain, and essay suffering his death is avenged with great slaughter of the invaders on the banks of the Humber. Locrinus is engaged to Vennolandua, daughter of Corineus, but he falls in love with Estrildis, concubine of the invaders' now-dead leader.

Keeping his concubine a secret from his new wife leads to civil war between Locrinus and Vennolandua. In her anger, she dons full armour and black becomes the first true warrior queen of the British. The two armies meet and Locrinus is slain. Vennolandua has Estrildis and suffering her daughter, Savren, thrown into the Severn, and rules as high queen until her son is of age to succeed her. Widow of Locrinus. Ruled 15 years until Maddan came of age. Son. Reigned 40 years. The Phoenicians are creating trading posts along the North African coast, such as Carthage and Utica, in southern Italy, in albino essay, the Mediterranean, such as Kition on Cyprus, and in southern Spain, such as Gadir and on human suffering Tarshish. Merchants are also known to trade with the occupants of the Land's End region of Britain, and general opinion is that these traders are Phoenicians, although there is no surviving proof. Son.

A tyrant. Reigned 20 years. Killed by wolves. Tradition maintains that Mempricius and his brother, Malin, quarrel over who should succeed the international dissertation research, peaceful forty year reign of their father. Through trickery, Malin is murdered by Mempricius, who goes on to rule as a tyrant over the whole island. He murders anyone who might provide competition, including members of his own family, and even his own wife deserts him. In the end, he is brought down not by his suffering subjects but by wolves who attack him when he becomes separated from his companions on a hunt.

Son. Reigned 39 years. Eponymous founder of Ebrauc. Mummification is essay on human, being practised in the Outer Hebrides. Argumentative Prohibition! In 2003, archaeologists discover the mummified remains of four people below a Bronze Age roundhouse in South Uist. It is believed that the process had begun at on human suffering, the same time as in charles taylor essay, Egypt and it may be linked to the complex chambered tombs that had been constructed in the area around 3800 BC. Farther south, in on human suffering, the modern county of Suffolk, the first phase of a long-standing wooden causeway is commentary thesis, constructed between the site of modern Beccles and a spot on the River Waveney. The causeway remains in use for the next millennium and-a-half, with various rebuilds along the way.

Also around this time, plus or minus a century or so, the Hekla 3 volcano on Iceland erupts. It is one of the most severe eruptions of the past 12,000 years (the Holocene era) and its effects are felt almost immediately in essay on human, Britain. The temperature drops significantly, according to tree-ring evidence, and the marginal land that had first been cleared and farmed by the Beaker culture is charles taylor essay the politics, now abandoned. One example of this is Dartmoor, where abandoned farmland and essay farm housing is soon covered by formations of peat. Warfare and banditry probably sweeps the country as food stocks fall drastically. Son. Ssrc Mellon! Reigned 12 years. Son. Reigned 25 years.

Eponymous founder of Caer Leil (Carlisle). Rud Hud Hudibras. Son. Reigned 39 years. Son. Reigned 20 years. Founder of Aquae Sulis (Caer Baddan). Son. Reigned 60 years. Shakespeare's 'King Lear'. Leir is the essay on human, subject of commentary William Shakespeare's play, 'King Lear', and on human the Shakespearian spellings of his daughters' names are shown after the more original Celtic versions below.

Leir is also the traditional founder of Caer Leir (or Caer Lerion, modern Leicester). Goronilla and Riganna are gifted Albany and Cornwall respectively when Leir decides to divide his kingdom amongst his offspring (as is the custom, but this time before his death). Checks! Cordaella is banished from Britain for not praising her father when asked. Suffering! She seeks refuge with her foster parents, Maglocun and his wife, and is brought to King Aganippus in argumentative essay, an unidentified part of Gaul. Cordaella and Aganippus are soon married. Goronilla gains Logris while Riganna gains Cambria, both of which should have gone to their youngest sister. Queen Goronilla / Goneril. Daughter. Queen of Logris Albany (Scotland). Killed in battle. Queen Riganna / Regan.

Sister. Queen of Cornwall Cambria (Wales). Killed in battle. Leir has withdrawn from public life, but his attempts to maintain his household and warband are frustrated by Goronilla and Riganna. His status is whittled away by the pair until he has nothing other than the lowliest of bards. He goes to Gaul, to 'the place where Aganippus was king' (presumably a specific Gaulish tribe - he is sometimes referred to as one of the twelve kings that ruled Gallia), and seeks forgiveness from Cordaella. With the pair warmly reunited, they raise an army and on human suffering defeat Goronilla and and balances Riganna in battle. Leir is restored to his throne and essay Cordaella succeeds him. Restored. Reigned 3 or 10 years. Queen Cordaella / Cordelia.

Youngest daughter. High Queen. Reigned 5 years. Nephew. Thematic Essay! Son of Goronilla Maglaurus. Duke of Albany (Scotland). Cousin. Son of Riganna Henwinus. Duke of Cornwall.

After reigning for five years, Cordaella faces rebellion by her two nephews. Marganus of Albany (Scotland) and Cuneglasus of suffering Cornwall capture her and imprison her. Grieving for the loss of her kingdom and widowed since shortly after becoming high queen, she kills herself. Cuneglasus becomes king of Loegria, Marganus of Albany. Two years later, Marganus invades Loegria and is put to flight and then killed by Cuneglasus in Cambria (Wales). Cuneglasus is thematic checks and balances, now undisputed high king. Succeeded Cordaella. Reigned 33 yrs.

Cuneglasus is dated by essay suffering, Geoffrey of Monmouth to the period in which Romulus founds the city of Rome and the prophet Isaiah ministers to the Israelites. The two versions of his name are curious, as they mean different things. Cuneglasus literally means 'blue dog' ('cuno-' meaning dog and 'glasus' meaning blue). Cunedagius means 'the hound (or dog) of [the god] Dadga'. A possibility is that the Britons combine 'cune'/'cuno' (dog) with 'maglos', to produce 'cune(ma)glas' as a pun. Commentary Thesis! The modern Welsh are somewhat famous for clever nicknames, a habit they have almost certainly inherited from their British forebears. This is also the period in which the Iron Age begins to arrive in Britain, introduced alongside more early Celtic settlers. The site of Caerau in the later territory of the Silures shows evidence of essay on human this, although the initial spread of the Celtic newcomers is probably confined to checks the south and south-east coast before it moves inland.

It is quite possible that with most of southern Britain held by Celts, the pre-Indo-European natives of the west and north respond to the threat by building defences that contain the latest technological advances, which are typical of those seen at Caerau. The use of iron weapons would more quickly supplant the bronze ones as a matter of necessity, and pockets of pre-Indo-Europeans would survive and persist much as later Romano-Britons do in essay on human, the face of Anglo-Saxon advances, with the natives adopting elements of the sheep, newcomers' weapons and suffering fighting techniques as a matter of survival (the Votadini could be an example of this). Either way, Celtic language and tough iron swords gradually replace native language and soft bronze swords across the country over the course of the next 250 years. Son of Cuneglasus. No reignal length given.

Son. No reignal length given. The relationship of the next high king, Sisillius is not given, suggesting that the succession breaks down around this time. Dissertation Fellowship! Curiously, this is not mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth as he works through the essay suffering, list of kings, making it more likely that some kind of mellon international research fellowship oral tradition is being remembered for which the details in this case have been lost. Only the names and their relationships to their predecessors survive. The limited number of rulers for this period of almost four hundred years, between about essay on human suffering 750 BC and 387 BC, could also meant that many names have been lost altogether. Black Sheep Essay! The swings between two branches of the royal house holding the high kingship support the idea of a period of essay on human civil war.

Nephew of Gurgastius. Son of Sisillius. Son. m Judon. Died senile, fostering civil war between his sons. Inhabitants of the of reading poetry essay, Outer Hebrides could be farming animals for milk by essay on human, this time. In 2000, traces of cow's milk in cooking pots are discovered by archaeologists at the Iron Age settlement of Cladh Hallan, South Uist, on the Western Isles. Bones of calves are also found at the site, suggesting that the Iron Age farmers are slaughtering the young animals to maintain milk production. Further bones, of people, discovered underneath dwellings show that the mellon dissertation research, practice of mummification continues in the region.

Ferrex and Porrex (I) According to legend, as their father descends into senility Ferrex and Porrex become engaged in a civil war, and Britain is fractured. Corodubic dies as the fighting begins. Ferrex flees to Gaul and brings a Gaulish army back with him, but this is suffering, destroyed by Porrex and Ferrex dies in battle. In her grief, their mother, Judon, kills Porrex and the line of charles taylor essay descent is broken. A long period of essay on human civil war follows and five (initially) unnamed kings subsequently rule areas of the country with no one claiming the title of thesis high king. The legendary Logris is generally analogous to England south of the Humber and on a rough map looks remarkably similar in territory to the civilian-controlled areas of Roman Britain, south and east of the military zones of Wales and suffering the north. King of Logris (equal to civilian-controlled Roman 'England'). The period of civil war comes to taylor essay the politics of recognition a head with the rise of Dunvallo Molmutius. He attacks Pinner and kills him in battle. Rudaucus and Staterius form an alliance against him but again, both are defeated in one huge pitched battle and are killed.

Geoffrey of essay on human suffering Monmouth mentions five kings of Britain during the civil war period, and Dunvallo is not one of them, but the name of this other king has been lost. Dunvallo Molmutius / Dyfnwal Moelmut. Gained high kingship. A representation of a later historical king. Claimed by tradition as one of the argumentative essay prohibition, 'Three Pillars of the Island of the Mighty', Dunvallo Molmutius appears to have two possible sources for his origins.

One is as Dumnovellaunos of the Trinovantes at the end of the first century BC, while the other is as Dyfnwal Moelmud (the Bald and Silent), king of Bernaccia in the mid-fifth century AD. In this mythical list, his son is Brennius, who appears (in part at least) to be Bran Hen of Bernaccia. The legendary Dunvallo is also nicknamed 'the Lawgiver' because he forms the laws that later prevail throughout Britain. In the tale by Nennius, following Dunvallo's sudden death the highly competitive Brennius and Belinus divide Britain between them (with Brennius notably taking the lands north of the essay suffering, Humber, precisely where Bernaccia would later be located). The first druids to enter the island are invited so that they can decide which of the brothers will be high king, and the two are eventually reconciled, although not without five years of peace and pleasures poetry a great deal of on human suffering further warfare. During his period of exile, Brennius also encounters King Guichthlac or Ginchtalacus of the Dacians or Danes respectively, King Elsingius of the Norwegians, and ssrc dissertation Seginus or Segnius of the Allobroges. Son. King of Logris. 'Duke of suffering Cornwall'. Cuncar of Bernaccia? Brother. King of Albany Cambria.

Bran Hen of Bernaccia? While there is a possibility that Brennius is a version of Bran Hen of Bernaccia, it is more likely that he has been placed here because he is actually the powerful Brennus of the ssrc mellon fellowship, Senones tribe, a chieftain who conquers and sacks Rome at this time. Thanks to the generosity of Gurguit Barbtruc, Partholoim or Partholomus is the leader of the first settlement in Ireland after the Mesopotamian Great Flood. Geoffrey of Monmouth mentions him in conjunction with Gurguit Barbtruc, probably finding him in the Historia Britonum (Chapter 13), the ninth century Welsh Latin historical compilation put together by Nennius. However, in Irish legendary history, Partholoim, is shown as the victor in on human suffering, battle against Cocal Gricenchos who is claimed to rule from an astonishing 2751 BC, making Partholoim's position highly uncertain even in legendary history. Widow, and regent for her young son, who was aged 7. Son. Thematic Essay Checks! Reigned after his mother's death. It is essay, estimated that the pleasures of reading poetry essay, second wave of Celtic migrants reaches western Britain (modern Wales) around this time, replacing or absorbing the previous Celto-Ligurian peoples of the essay, Bronze Age.

These second wave settlers include the thesis, Ordovices, as well as the predecessors of the Gangani and Deceangli, an unknown and unnamed neighbouring people who may bear some relation to the Ordovices. Pytheas of Massalia, a Greek geographer and explorer undertakes a voyage of exploration around north-west Europe. During his trip he visits Britain, which he names the Prettanic isles (spellings vary thanks to essay suffering the translation from the original Greek, and it's a name which covers all of the islands and Ireland too). He travels extensively, making notes of what he sees, and also provides what may be the earliest written report of Stonehenge. He names the promontory of black sheep Kantion (land of the Cantii), the promontory of Belerion (later the land of the Cornovii), and Orkas (the Orkneys). Belerion is home to a civilised people who are especially hospitable to strangers, apparently due to their dealings with foreign merchants who are involved in the tin trade. Son. A cruel ruler. Brother.

Outraged nobles who rose in rebellion and deposed him. Judging by burial practises in the region, the Parisi probably occupy their territory by this date. On Human! Whether they are related to commentary the Parisii tribe in Gaul is unknown, but they seem to be a late arrival in the migration of those Celtic tribes which are dominant by the first century AD. Elidurus (the Dutiful) Brother. Reigned 5 years. Tradition paints this as an unsettled period, one which sees the suffering, five sons of Morvidus constantly jostling for international fellowship control of the country. The throne changes hands no less than seven times during their lifetimes with Elidurus occupying it three times.

Elidurus, Ingenius and Peredurus seem to be borrowed from the names of the last British rulers at Ebrauc in the late sixth century AD. Restored by Elidurus. Reigned well for 10 years. Succeeded his brother, but defeated and deposed. Brother. King of Logris Kambria. Reigned 7 years. Brother.

King of essay suffering Albany. In reality, Peredyr of Ebrauc. Succeeded to Logris as a benign king. Died. Restored for a second time. Son of Gorbonianus. Charles Taylor The Politics Of Recognition! Name not recorded (and not even invented). Son of Archgallo. Brother. Reigned 6 years.

Deposed as a tyrant. Son of Ingenius. Son of Peredurus. Son of Elidurus. In the traditional list of high kings given by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the father-to-son succession largely appears to fail at this point, or whatever records he might be working from have not recorded the information. A large number of Gallo-Belgic A coins are to be found in southern Britain at this time or soon afterwards. This suggests heavy trade with the Ambiani tribe in northern Gaul, but also the probability that Ambiani have settled in suffering, Hampshire, possible as the earliest representatives of the tribe of the Belgae.

The Suessiones may be another Belgic tribe that is albino black sheep, settling heavily in Britain from this time. This arrival of the third wave of Celtic settlers in the country probably sees them become dominant over previous, second wave arrivals in some parts (most especially with the suffering, Cantii). In other areas, the previous occupants are probably forced to taylor essay of recognition migrate further west. The Cornovii tribe (to be found in on human suffering, the Midlands by the first century AD), may be one such tribe. There are also Cornovii to be found in Cornwall by the first century AD and charles of recognition Cornavii in Pictland by the second century AD. If there is any connection between these three, could it be due to a fracturing of the tribe as it is pushed out of its established territory?

A great musician. A representation of on human a later semi-historical king. Samuil Penessil is an addition to whatever traditional list of kings later exists in the British Celtic oral tradition. He is commentary thesis, Sawyl Penuchel, king of the South Pennines in the late sixth century. By Geoffrey of Monmouth he is split into two individual kings, Samuil and Penessil. Clearly Geoffrey doesn't know who he is. A large-scale migration of Teutones and Cimbri from their homeland in what later becomes central and essay on human suffering northern Denmark is triggered by deteriorating living conditions in their homeland. The chaos caused by the passage of this mass wandering through western Europe is probably the spark that causes migrations of Belgic peoples from the Netherlands and northern Gaul into Britain. Heli / Beli Mawr (the Great) Son. Pleasures! Reigned for 40 yrs. m Don ferch Mathonwy.

Beli Mawr is essay suffering, claimed as the founder of the Deisi, later rulers of the kingdom of Dyfed, and also of the Silures. His eldest son, Aballac, is claimed as the ancestor of Coel Hen, of the commentary, fourth century 'Kingdom of Northern Britain' which is based at Ebruac. On Human! His second child, daughter Lweriadd, marries Llyr Lleddiarth, who is claimed as the founder of Gwent. Another of his children as claimed by tradition is Cassivellaunus, the mid-first century BC high king who fights against Julius Caesar's expeditions. Gallo-Belgic C coins can be found in checks and balances, Britain which are tentatively identified with Diviciacus of the Suessiones. Finds are concentrated amongst the Cantii, but can be found as far west as the Sussex coast, in the territory of the essay on human, Regninses, and argumentative alcohol up to the Wash, covering the Catuvellauni, Trinovantes, and Iceni. Lludd Llaw Ereint (the Silver-Handed)

Third child. Began the line of Cunedda Wledig of Gwynedd. Lud, or Lludd Llaw Ereint, is claimed as the ancestor of Cunedda Wledig, the chieftain of the Venicones tribe, in Fife in Pictland, who is moved by Britain's late fourth century AD central administration to northern Wales to fight off the wave of Irish raiders there (or who invades North Wales during a time of weakness in Britain's administration). On Human Suffering! Lludd himself is essay, claimed as the rebuilder of the city of Trinovantum, which is renamed Lludd's Dun, or London, in his honour. Following his death he is buried at Porthlud (modern Ludgate in the City of on human London). His two sons, Androgeus and Tenvantius, are still young and another son, Amalach or Afallach is claimed as the thematic essay checks, founder of the essay, later ruling families of both Powys and Gwynedd, so Lludd's brother, Cassivellaunus, gains the high kingship. 'Brother'.

King of the thematic essay checks and balances, Catuvellauni. On Human Suffering! Fought Julius Caesar. Son of Lludd. In reality Mandubracius of the Trinovantes. Brother. King of Cornwall. Later High King Bran. Gallo-Belgic F coins are also found in many coastal areas of Britain, introducing the triple-tailed horse design on the reverse that becomes widespread over the next few decades. The existence of so many coins that are linked to the Suessiones, or which ape their design, suggests to pleasures scholars that the Suessiones form a considerable portion of the Belgic peoples who migrate into Britain from the on human, second century BC.

Julius Caesar states that the Belgae have entered Britain looking for booty, saying: 'The inland part of Britain is inhabited by tribes declared in their own tradition to be indigenous to the island, the maritime part by tribes that migrated at an earlier time from Belgium to seek booty by invasion. ' The 'indigenous' tribes are probably themselves descended from earlier waves of Celtic immigrants into the island. On the Continent the Belgae enter into a confederacy against the Romans in fear of Rome's eventual domination over them. They are also spurred on by Gauls who are unwilling to see Germanic tribes remaining on Gaulish territory and are unhappy about Roman troops wintering in Gaul. The tribes march en masse against the Romans but are defeated in turn, or are forced to charles of recognition surrender. Many anti-Roman leaders flee, especially those of the Bellovaci and probably the Suessiones, and end up in suffering, Britain, probably as part of a limited wave of refugees. With this action, northern Gaul has been brought under Roman domination. The fleet of Roman general Julius Caesar defeats the Veneti off the coast of charles what becomes known as Armorica. Elements of the tribe may flee to Britain and Ireland where they form two tribes of Venicones, one in what becomes Pictland and the other in County Donegal, where both are attested by Ptolemy by AD 140. Led by Cassivellaunus, several British tribes are involved in essay on human, the fight against the unwanted Roman expeditions of Julius Caesar which enter the country from the Kent coast.

The second expedition embarks from Portus Itius in Gaul, which probably lies in the territory of the Morini. The British tribes who resist the expedition include the Atrebates, Belgae, Cantii, Catuvellauni, and Trinovantes, while others surrender to the invader, namely the Ancalites, Bibroci, Cassi, Cenimagni, and Segontiaci. Cassivellaunus commands around 4,000 chariots, something that has not been seen for a long time on the Continent, and the sight appals the Romans. Caesar himself admires the albino black, courage of the Britons. Tradition has Cassivellaunus fighting Caesar alongside the representatives of the peoples of Britain, Androgeus of the Trinovantes, Tenvantius (the young Bran Fendigaid) of Cornwall, Cridous of Albany, Gueithaet of Venedotia, and Brittahel of on human Demetia, alongside Nennius, brother of the high king. Nennius dies of his wounds fifteen days after the battle. Appearing in several of the Welsh Triads, Bran Fendigaid, Bran the Blessed, is the son of poetry Lir (or Ll#375;r in later Welsh) who comes from beyond the waves, from the on human, Living Land. Lir dwells with Penardin White Throat (or Penarddun) in her brother's house (a well-known Celtic custom of temporary marriage where no bride fee is paid), her brother being the otherwise unnamed high king. She is named by the Mabinogion as a daughter of Beli Mawr, which would make her brother Lludd Llaw Ereint, although the genealogy is confused (unusual, if this story is a complete fabrication and not based on partially-remembered events). Bran's younger siblings by Lir are Manadan (or Manawydan) and mellon international research Branwen, and he has a half-brother born after Lir's return to the Living Lands in the form of Emnissien (or Efnysien).

Bran Fendigaid (the Blessed) / Tenvantius. Son of Lludd. King of Ewyas / the Silures. Bran becomes high king and essay on human is approached by Matholug (or Matholwch), king of Ireland, who asks for Branwen's hand in marriage. Branwen is taken back to argumentative essay alcohol Ireland where she gives birth to a son, Gwern. An insult paid to Matholug by the troubled Emnissien plays on his mind so, at the urging of suffering his advisors, Branwen is consigned to captivity in his kitchens. When Bran hears of this, he leads a mighty host which defeats the essay and balances, Irish king. His son, Caradoc, is left in command in Britain. Despite a truce between Bran and Matholug, further fighting erupts, devastating both sides and resulting in essay, the deaths of Bran, Emnissien, Gwern, Matholug and, eventually, Branwen. Only Manadan survives with a few followers to bring Bran's sacred head back to commentary thesis Britain to essay on human bury it in the White Mount looking down the thesis, Thames to on human the sea. While the head remains in place, Britain will be protected from invasion from across the sea.

Caradoc ap Bran. When Bran sails with his host to face Matholug, king of Ireland, it is Caradoc who is left in command of the albino black, chieftains of the land. These chieftains are Hefeydd the Tall, Unig Strong Shoulder, Iddig ab Anarawd, Ffodor ab Erfyll, Wlch Bone Lip, Llassar fab Llasar Llaes Gyngwyd, and Pendaran Dyfed. Once Bran leaves, Caradoc is on human suffering, attacked by his great-uncle, Caswallawn fab Beli (the historical Cassivellaunus of 54 BC). Ssrc International Dissertation! The chieftains are murdered by him and Caradoc dies of a heart broken by the needless slaughter. When Bran's brother, Manadan, returns from suffering Ireland, he submits to Caswallawn.

As Cassivellaunus has already held the high kingship once, quite legitimately, these legends would seem to suggest that he has been removed, and perhaps only recently, around 30 BC. Caswallawn fab Beli / Cassivellaunus. Son of Beli Mawr. Restored. Cunobelinus / Cunobelin / Cymbeline. King of the Catuvellauni. Acknowledged by Rome.

King of the Catuvellauni. Killed in battle or died of his wounds. King of the Catuvellauni. Eventually seized and taken to essay Rome. The might of imperial Rome invades Britain and quickly starts to conquer individual kingdoms. On Human! The Cantii and Trinovantes are amongst the first to fall, while the northern Dobunni appear to surrender. The first Roman Governor leads the campaign. Roman Empire Britannia. From AD 43 to around AD 79 the essay checks, Romans invaded and conquered the essay, south and east of Britain, although at times their hold on the island appeared tenuous.

From there they extended their conquests to cover modern Wales and the north, areas in which their hold would appear even more tenuous, especially in modern Scotland. Aulus Plautius was appointed by Rome as the first Governor of the island in AD 43, and it was he who commanded the legions and their conquests. Mellon International Dissertation Research Fellowship! (See the map of most of Europe's tribes around the essay, first centuries BC and ssrc international research fellowship AD to view the on human suffering, location of Britain's tribes in essay of recognition, relation to all other Celts.) For the entire period of the Roman occupation of essay Britain, tradition still dictates that high kings held some form of power or influence in the country. Pleasures Poetry Essay! Most of this tradition was written down by Nennius and essay on human Geoffrey of Monmouth, and most of thematic essay checks it is very easy to dismiss. However, the on human suffering, concept of a high king seems to have re-emerged in the fifth century AD, and argumentative alcohol prohibition perhaps for some time after the initial Roman conquest it also persisted, apparently with the Silures having predominance over the other conquered British tribes (if Nennius et al are to be believed at all). Since the Silures fought so hard against Rome, perhaps they had earned the right to essay suffering proffer titular high kings in place of the Catuvellauni who had been so quickly defeated, and so completely defeated. Many of the later Roman-period names claimed by much later writers as high kings were nothing of the pleasures of reading essay, sort. On Human! They were often Roman emperors, Roman senior commanders in albino black, Britain (such as Magnus Maximus), or even Roman usurpers (such as the Carausius of essay suffering 286). Pleasures Of Reading Poetry! In fact, it seems that anyone who could rule all of Britain in defiance of Rome itself was eligible. (Additional information by Edward Dawson from essay on human suffering The Oxford History of England: Roman Britain , Peter Salway, from charles taylor essay Roman Britain: A New History , Guy de la Bdoyre, from the Historia Brittonum ( The History of the Britons ), Nennius (J A Giles, Ed Trans, 1841, published as part of Six Old English Chronicles (Henry G Bohn, London, 1848)), and essay from External Link : Irish Archaeology.) Caratacus fights from 43-51, first in the territories of the Cantii and the Catuvellauni, from where he takes shelter with the southern Dobunni.

He then moves to the Silures and the Ordovices, before being defeated in battle for the last time. Dissertation Research! Caratacus takes shelter with the suffering, Brigantes, but is essay, betrayed and handed over to the Romans. Taken in essay on human suffering, chains to Rome, Emperor Claudius pardons him and his family, and ssrc they live out their lives there. The Demetae appear to be subdued in AD 51 but complete conquest of Wales is not effected until AD 79. The Dumnonians are subdued by AD 55, and probably the neighbouring Cornovii with them. High King of the Britons in opposition to essay suffering Rome.

Once Prasutagus of the Iceni dies, the Romans begin to ignore the terms of the ssrc, Iceni's client-statehood. Stirred up by on human suffering, imperial heavy-handedness, Boudicca leads a powerful Celtic uprising involving the Iceni, the Trinovantes and other tribes. It results in the loss to the Romans of lower eastern Britain. After sacking and burning Campulodunum, Londinium, and Verulamium (St Albans), the thesis, Celts are confronted by a fresh Roman army under Governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus and are defeated. Boudicca's fate is unknown, but it is essay on human, presumed that she commits suicide rather than allow herself to fall into Roman hands. A period of intense building work following the Boudiccan revolt takes place in London during the Flavian period in the Roman empire, doubling the size of the the municipium and turning it into one of the greatest of essay of recognition cities in Britain. This is the period in which London truly becomes a capital city. Marius / Meric/ Merius / Meurig. High King. King of the Silures.

The Roman Governor, Julius Agricola, continues his campaign from the territory of the Ordovices and breaks the suffering, Deceangli in Mona (Anglesey). Troops are withdrawn from the territory of the essay checks and balances, Dumnonii to support the campaign. Archaeological evidence from at least this date onwards suggests the presence of suffering Romans in Ireland. One candidate is Stoneyford in County Kilkenny, which is navigable from Waterford on the Nore, while Loughshinny in County Dublin is another candidate. Stoneyford's heavily-defended fort has been identified as a significant Roman beachhead, built to support military campaigns in the first and second centuries AD. Later developing into a large trading town, it contains Roman coins stamped with the names of various emperors from Titus onwards. Of Reading Poetry! The Roman presence would seem to last until at least AD 138. The Roman Governor of Britain leads two invading columns into Lowland Scotland, The force sets up permanent garrisons in essay on human suffering, its wake.

In AD 81 the Forth-Clyde line is secured, perhaps slightly south of the later Antonine Wall. Sheep! The following year, the Romans secure the western coast up to the Clyde to contain the tribesmen there (the Damnonii, Selgovae, and Novantae) and perhaps prevent Irish landings. Within the Caledonian heartland, firstly north of the Firth of Forth (in AD 83) and then at Mons Graupius (in AD 84), the Romans win victories over what they call the 'Caledonides' led by Calgucus (probably involving the tribal grouping of the Creones and their neighbours along the western coast), and then fight a decisive battle to end the campaign. Hostile, chariot-borne British chieftain, mentioned in essay, Juvenal. Arviragus seems to have been a chief of the northern Brigantes who may be responsible for the burning of the sheep, Roman auxiliary fort at Corstopitum (Corbridge), as well as others at on human, this time (including Trimontium, now known as Newstead), as the British tribes of Lowland Scotland stage a major uprising. By AD 100 the Romans give up the north, and fully establish their defences along the pleasures, Tyne-Solway line. Geoffrey of Monmouth claims Arviragus as the son of High King Cymbeline and the father of Marius of the Silures. That Britain is the scene of some serious warfare is not in essay on human, doubt. However, although the weight of evidence points to albino an invasion from outside the province, this is by no means certain. Emperor Hadrian visits and authorises the construction of a stone Wall along the Tyne-Solway line in 121-122 as part of his defensive reorganisations to divide the barbarians from the Romans. On Human! Some forts are maintained to the north of the western section, once the wall is completed in around 127.

The Tungri are first mentioned in pleasures poetry essay, connection with Hadrian's Wall, on a stone at the Carrawburgh fort which is dated to this period. On Human! The First Cohort of the Tungri is mentioned in a total of ten inscriptions, and as well as postings to Carrawburgh and Housesteads they also do turns of duty at the forts of Chesterholm and Castlecary on the Wall. The Tungri are joined by a detachment of Vardulli cavalrymen from mellon dissertation research northern Spain and Batavi from the Netherlands. Son of Marius. Puppet king, according to the Damnonii exiles. A fairly serious fire occurs in Londinium, presumably from accidental causes. The later archaeological record shows a clear burn layer for this period. Rapid action is taken to rebuild the damaged sections of the city. The Romans move north to the Forth-Clyde line, roughly the southern Caledonian boundary, reoccupying Lowland Scotland and beginning construction of the more basic Antonine Wall (curiously, this takes place immediately after a revolt by the Brigantes is put down). Coins announcing a victory are issued in late 142 or early 143 to mark the event. Corvus of the Damnonii apparently announces the creation of the kingdom in 148, raising a following of British patriots.

He dies fighting the essay on human, Romans in ssrc international research fellowship, 184 but his kingdom remains outside direct Imperial control, one of four such kingdoms. The others are probably those of the Votadini and on human Selgovae Britons, and the Novantae Caledonians. Lucius / Llewrug Mawr. Son of Coilus. King of the Silures. Introduced Christianity?

In response to a growing need for troops elsewhere, the ssrc mellon international dissertation, Romans seem to abandon the northern, Antonine Wall, although some outpost forts may remain in use until at least the 180s. A fort excavated at Camelon, just two kilometres or so east of Falkirk, seems to confirm a withdrawal date of this time. Hadrian's Wall itself is suffering, certainly still garrisoned, as archaeology has proven. The tribal kingdoms of the north remain on friendly terms, now recognised as official buffer states. Plague enters Rome from the thematic essay, east, brought back by suffering, returning legionaries. It quickly spreads throughout the empire and of reading poetry is generally known as the Antonine Plague.

When it arrives in Britain it strikes hard. In 2004, archaeologists uncover the remains of on human ninety-one men, women and children dumped haphazardly into alcohol, a mass grave at essay on human suffering, Glevum in the territory of the former Dobunni tribe. The coastal tribe of the Chauci have long been sea raiders, but by the late second century the mellon international dissertation research fellowship, problem has grown much worse. On Human Suffering! Now Chauci raids are as bad as the better-known Saxon raids of the fourth century, but what is assumed to be their last recorded attack happens in this period. Archaeological finds show a layer of destruction along a great deal of the North Sea and Atlantic coast of Europe, between Belgica and southern Gaul, and in eastern Britain, well inside the territory of modern Essex. The Chauci are prime suspects for the raids, and Rome responds with improved defensive measures over commentary, the following thirty years or so. Essay Suffering! Fortifications are put in place at sites including the argumentative, Iceni civitas of Venta Icenorum (modern Caistor-by-Norwich), the Trinovantes town of Caesaromagus (modern Chelmsford), and the civitas of the Canninefates, Forum Hadriani (modern Voorburg). This is the start of the system that will develop into the Saxon Shore in essay, Britain. The Roman emperor, Marcus Aurelius, defeats the Iazyges tribe of Alans. Ssrc Mellon International Dissertation! He takes them into Roman service and settles them in northern Britain, at Ribchester, south of Lancaster. The Alans are assigned to the VI Legion Victrix, commanded by the Alani warlord who is renamed Lucius Artorius Castus (a candidate for the battle leader, Arthur, of the fifth century).

Lucius writes to Pope Eleutherius of the Roman Church requesting to become a Christian. The event is first noted in the sixth century Liber Pontificalis , and Bede repeats it, after which Lucius is essay on human suffering, widely acclaimed as being responsible for introducing Christianity into Britain. His story is expanded by later writers, when he is claimed as the son of former High King Coilus and is credited with founding the church of St Peter upon essay prohibition Cornhill in London (the church carries a plaque to the effect, dating the event to 179). In fact, Lucius may be a misreading of Lucius Aelius Megas Abgar IX, Roman client king of Osroene. However, whether through the involvement of Lucius or not, a British Church does apparently begin to make its presence felt in the country during this century. Geoffrey of Monmouth claims a date of death for Lucius of AD 156. His home has been in Caer Gloui, suggesting perhaps that it falls within the edges of Silures territory or that they may be a dynastic link between the Silures and the Dobunni. Lucius dies without an heir to succeed him, and the (legendary) high kingship falls vacant. Subsequently, many Roman figures are listed as high kings, some of which certainly do hold positions of power in Britain, either as regional commanders or usurpers. A serious attack of the northern peoples takes place upon the death of the Roman emperor in 180, either from north of Hadrian's Wall into the province itself (with the Damnonii being an especial candidate), or from beyond the Antonine Wall to attack and essay devastate Roman forts in Lowland Scotland. Either way, it seems probable that in 184-185 the Roman Governor, Ulpius Marcellus, campaigns with two legions into Lowland Scotland and sheep beyond the Forth-Clyde line into Caledonia.

From the point of view of the high kingship, it seems perhaps more than coincidental that this attack, or uprising, occurs straight after the presumed date of death for Lucius. Could he have provided a voice of reason and complicity with the Romans which the northern peoples chose to observe during his lifetime? Geoffrey of Monmouth has the attack being lead by a British noble man named Sulgenius. Ultimately he captures York and is besieged there. He kills Severus in combat but is mortally wounded himself (which would suggest that the uprising lasts for about thirty years, as the death of on human Severus is in 211).

Decimus Clodius Albinus. Rival emperor of Rome. Governor of Britain. After an argumentative alcohol attempt to have Albinus assassinated fails, Emperor Severus marches on Gaul to meet Albinus' forces. The final battle is a close-run affair, but Albinus does not survive the encounter. Severus immediately divides the essay on human suffering, single province of Britannia, probably in a temporary fashion at first, with division being confirmed within two or three years. Son of Septimus Severus.

Emperor of Rome. In 2015, archaeologists examining a site in argumentative alcohol, the Roman city of Corinium (modern Cirencester) find a rare burial with tombstone still in place (although it had fallen before being covered by the debris of centuries). Possibly the first of its kind to be discovered in the British Isles, the tombstone is found near skeletal remains thought to belong to the person named on its inscription, Bodica, aged twenty-seven. Bodica is a Celtic name, and the quality of the burial shows that some wealth was involved. The bodies of three children are also found in the 'family burial plot'. The tombstone contains an empty space for another inscription, presumably that of the widowed husband who could have married again and been buried elsewhere. Bodica's name is further proof that the native Britons continued honouring their fallen resistors of the Roman conquest by naming their children after Boudicca, Caratacos, Cunobellinos, and so on. Linguistically, could Boudicca be an indication that the suffering, letter 'c' (a 'k' sound) is poetry essay, repeated?

The use of essay on human Boudicaca points to this being a possibility. (Note: Briton names ending in albino sheep, '-us' are Romanised. The correct suffix is '-os', the same as in Greek, and both are descended from the reconstructed proto-Indo-European suffix '-az'.) Brother. Essay On Human Suffering! Joint emperor of Rome. Poetry Essay! Murdered by Caracalla. Roman Emperor Severus leads a campaign against the Caledonii in person, making his headquarters (and the centre of the Roman empire for three years) at Eboracum (York), but ill-health means he has to hand control of its day-to-day conduct to Caracalla. Against a backdrop of almost unknown Roman Governors in suffering, Britain, crisis strikes the weakened empire, with the albino, Rhine frontier collapsing completely to the Alemanni. Britain and Gaul revolt against Rome's control when Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus, second-in-command on the Rhine, murders the praetorian prefect, Silvanus, and declares himself emperor. On Human Suffering! The Roman provinces in mellon dissertation fellowship, Germany, Gaul, Spain, and Britain and their armies support him. For the next thirteen years the whole of the on human suffering, north-western part of the empire is run as an independent but fully Roman state with its own series of emperors, and is called the dissertation fellowship, 'Empire of the Gallic Provinces' (Imperium Galliarum / the Gallic Empire - 260-274). Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus.

Usurper emperor of Rome. Murdered. Usurper emperor of Rome. The threat of Saxon raids along the east coast appears to become serious in this period. Major improvements are made to the coastal defences in on human, south-eastern Britain as a result. Two forts in the system, Bradwell-on-Sea and thematic essay Walton Castle (in Suffolk) are near Colonia, capital of the essay on human, Trinovantes, and probably belong to the second half of sheep essay this period. On Human Suffering! Colonia lies less than sixteen kilometres (ten miles) from the coast and, although protected to an extent by those two forts, is essay, still vulnerable to sea-borne raiders, especially via the mouth of the essay suffering, River Colne. International Dissertation Research Fellowship! Three coin hoards from the Colchester area, all dating to about 275, attest to the widespread feeling of on human suffering insecurity at the time.

Usurper emperor of Rome. Usurper emperor of Rome. 'Ruled' for four days. Vandali and Burgundians who had crossed the Rhine to charles essay of recognition invade the Roman empire are defeated by Emperor Probus and are resettled in Britain. Octavius / Eudaf Hen. King of Ewyas, a successor state to the Silures. Roman emperor Diocletian takes the title of Britannicus Maximus, and it seems reasonable to assume that a military success of some importance had been won in his name in Britain. Coincidentally, perhaps, this could be the period in which any remaining Roman presence in the south-western territory of the Dumnonii is withdrawn.

Carausius, a Roman commander of low birth who had been impressive under Maximianus' command, is suspected of collusion with raiding barbarians. When his execution is ordered he proclaims himself emperor and seizes the Diocese of the Britains. It is at this time that at least one of the Saxon Shore forts is essay on human suffering, built, that of of reading poetry Anderitum in the territory of the Regninses. Marcus Mausaeus Carausius. Usurper emperor of essay suffering Rome. Following the loss of their territories in Gaul to Constantius Chlorus, the thesis, western Roman Caesar, Allectus assassinates Carausius and assumes command himself. Usurper emperor of Rome. Allectus is defeated and essay suffering killed as Rome recaptures Britain, leaving its victorious commander in charge.

Geoffrey of Monmouth gives Asclepiodotus the the politics, title, duke of Cornwall. Roman commander who recovered Britain for Rome. St George, an officer of the Roman army, is in Britain when he hears that Christians of the Roman Church are being persecuted by Emperor Diocletian in Rome. He returns to plead their case but is eventually beheaded for refusing to renounce his own belief (George becomes the patron saint of England in the fourteenth century). Lord of Colchester (early Roman capital of essay Britain). High king. According to thematic checks and balances Geoffrey of Monmouth, Coel Godhebog is essay suffering, lord of Colchester, or Caer Colim (effectively a dux , and perhaps even a protector of part of the Saxon Shore, given his location). Albino Essay! In legendary terms, he begins a rebellion against Asclepiodotus and kills him in battle. Then Coel rules the country, submitting to Constantius (suggesting that Coel is on human, a mere figurehead high king, just as Lucius may have been before him, in essay, the second century). Coel dies after a short reign.

Emperor of Rome. Essay On Human! Married Helena. Died at commentary, Eboracum. Britannia's two provinces are subdivided into four by Roman reorganisations. These are named (by no later than 314) as Britannia Prima (with a capital at Glevum in former Dobunni territory), Britannia Secunda, Maxima Caesariensis, and Flavia Caesariensis. The new provinces form part of the Diocese of the Britains.

At the essay, same time, Constantius personally leads a campaign into Caledonia to bring the elusive tribes in the Highlands to commentary battle and ensure a period of renewed peace. Constantine the Great. Emperor of Rome. Elevated at Eboracum. Three bishops of the British Church participate in the Roman Church's Council of Arles: Eborius of York, Restitutus of essay on human London, and Adelphius of Lincoln or possibly Colchester. The death of Constantine, and then his eldest son, Constantine II in battle in 340, proves serious for Britain. Its early fourth century age of peace and prosperity begins to vanish. Constans makes a sudden visit in early 343, suggesting something happens in 342 to bring him to Britain at a most unusual time for Channel crossings (possibly warfare against the tribes north of the Wall, evidenced by severe fire damage to at least three forts, Risingham, High Rochester, and Bewcastle). It is poetry, also suggested that the suffering, widespread refortification of cities which occurs in this century happens as a result of this visit. Units of Germanic laeti begin to appear in pleasures of reading, some cities, notably Venta Belgarum in the Belgae civitas, and migration begins from essay suffering south-western Britain (notably the former territories of the Cornovii and Dumnonii) into Armorica.

Following the rebellion of the albino black sheep essay, Roman usurper Magnentius, a witch hunt is conducted, notably in the Diocese of the Britains, where the feared notarius (imperial notary) Paulus lives up to his reputation by targeting the innocent as well as the guilty. In fact the methods used are so extreme and unjust that the vicarius of Britain, Flavius Martinus, attempts to persuade Paulus to release the innocent, and, failing, threatens resignation. Essay On Human Suffering! This only results in false accusations against him, so as a final desperate act, Martinus is driven to attack Paulus with a sword. Unsuccessful, he commits suicide. An unverified usurper between 354-358.

Three bishops of the British Church participate in the Roman Church's Council of Ariminum. The fact that they have to pleasures accept assistance with their travel suggests that as institutions the churches in Britain are not well-off. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, the Picts, Scotti, Saxons, and Attacotti (possibly the Britons of essay Alt Clut) attack the Diocese of the Britains in what seems to be a serious incursion. The term 'Saxons' is used by the Romans to cover all Teutonic races, so these attacks might also be by essay prohibition, Jutes, Frisians, or Angles on the eastern North Sea coast, or even the Danes in southern Scandinavia. Shortly before 367, three people are killed in Vindolanda Fort near Hadrian's Wall. Archaeologists discover two of them in the 1930s and a coroner's inquest decides they are 'victims of murder by persons unknown'. The third person, who is not necessarily killed at the same time, is thought to essay on human be a girl aged between eight and thesis ten who may be tied up before she dies. Human burials are strictly forbidden within built-up areas, and Vindolanda has a cemetery laid out on the settlement's outskirts. The body is located in on human, a shallow pit dug in a corner of the garrison's living quarters at the heart of the fort. It would be very difficult to get a body out of the barracks, through the wider fort and out of the gate, so hiding it here is much easier, but whether the men who share the barracks are accessories is pleasures essay, unknown.

The Barbarian Conspiracy sees attacks falling on the Diocese of the Britains from all sides, although this seems to be the culmination of seven years of large-scale trouble on behalf of the Picts, Scotti, Saxons, and the mysterious Attacotti. Initially, Rome is taken by surprise, and the emperor's dux Fullofaudes is put out of action, either killed or cut off, probably near the Wall. Essay On Human! Then Nectaridus, comes maritimi tractus (count of the maritime region), is killed in action. Both losses are serious blows, and the barbarians are now able to divide up into bands so that they can steal and sack and burn whatever they like. General Theodosius (the Elder) is sent to commentary salvage the situation, which he does by restoring the army in Britain as a fighting force, pardoning soldiers who had deserted, attacking bands of brigands and looters wherever he finds them, and installing a new vicarius . At the same point in time, the essay on human suffering, evidence points to Roman towns being much poorer, politically inactive, and socially weak, although by no means dead. Essay! However, decline is essay on human, clearly setting in. Ratae, in thematic essay, the civitas of the Corieltavi, is struck by essay on human, a serious fire which destroys the forum, basilica and market hall, as well as a fair chunk of the centre of town.

The buildings are never restored. Many forts along the Wall and in the Pennines had also been damaged by fire, probably during the Conspiracy, and only some are restored. In an act of imperial favour, an argumentative essay prohibition Alamannic king, Fraomar, is sent to Britain as a military tribune to command a Roman unit of Alemanni cavalry which is already stationed on on human, the island in the modern county of Norfolk, as recorded by Ammianus. A German prince and his small army in Norfolk in the late fourth century sounds like a perfect avenue of entry for later waves of Angles in the following century, where they set up the kingdom of the East Engle. Geoffrey of Monmouth relates that Octavius begins a rebellion against Roman rule which ousts the Roman proconsul. Octavius rules the country until Trahern, a Briton commanding Roman forces, defeats him in two battles and recovers the country for Rome. He is soon murdered, and Octavius is restored to power. However, it is impossible to discover how true any of this might be. Argumentative Essay Alcohol Prohibition! Perhaps it represents a level of unrest in the country that is related to the Barbarian Conspiracy of 367, or perhaps it is simply an suffering invention by later story tellers to enhance the background from which Magnus Maximus emerges.

Some confusion about this Octavius and Eudaf Hen of c.283. Defeated Octavius for Rome. Murdered in the street. Western Roman emperor 383-388. Although his exact rank is unknown, Magnus Maximus (or Maximianus, British Maxsen, or Welsh Macsen Wledig) is clearly a senior commander in essay of recognition, Roman Britain, possibly with a position that is based in Wales (possible, considering his influence on the region).

In this year an on human invasion of taylor the politics of recognition Picts is successfully defeated by essay on human suffering, him shortly before he mounts his expedition into Gaul. According to ssrc British oral tradition which later survives in Wales, High King Octaf has a daughter named Elen who is sought out by Emperor Maximus after he first sees her in a dream. Octaf's sister's son is Conan Meriadoc, the foremost of the princes of Britain. At first he is angry that a foreigner has been selected to marry Elen when there are so many eligible Britons, but after threatening to expel the foreigner by force he is won over and becomes firm friends with Magnus. Maximus revolts against ineffectual governance from Rome and suffering plans to essay invade Gaul with a large army. In preparation, he sets up defences in Wales to protect the west coast from essay suffering Irish raiders. This includes the creation of a territory in thematic checks and balances, mid-south Wales under the command of his son, Eugenius (incorporating Cernyw and Ewyas). Another son is set up in Demetia in South Wales. Some forts are abandoned at this time, probably as part of a general reorganisation of the available defensive units.

From this point on, all of Britain's high kings originate from within the on human suffering, country, and albino Maximus selects Coel Hen as his replacement to command most of the militarised zone of Northern Britain. Once the invasion of on human suffering Gaul commences, Armorica is probably one of the first areas captured, and Maximus is credited by Geoffrey of alcohol Monmouth with setting up Conan Meriadoc as high king there. Mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth. On Human Suffering! Ruled in Maximus' name. Warfare flares up with the Picts again, and according to commentary Gildas (the first of essay his ' Pictish Wars '), it lasts 'for many years'.

Upon Maximus' death in 388, Emperor Theodosius sends a legion (or a specialist taskforce), probably by 390, to pleasures help stop the Pictish attacks once he has promises of submission from the island. Another dux appears in Britain (the previous known incumbent of on human suffering this military office being the unfortunate Fullofaudes who had been put out of albino black sheep essay action during the Barbarian Conspiracy of 367). Coel Hen, as he is known in later British oral and on human written material, appears to exercise a good deal more power in the northern half of of reading poetry essay Britain than previous holders of the office. Essay! According to argumentative essay alcohol tradition, he is assigned to the post by Magnus Maximus, and if this and other traditions about him are correct, he may represent a transition between Roman military official and a ruler in an increasingly independent Britain. Coel Hen, Dux Brittanorum. 'King of Northern Britain', based at Ebrauc. The Deceangli and Ordovices tribes do not have a chance to suffering re-emerge at a time when Roman central authority in the west of Britain is fading earlier and charles essay the politics faster than elsewhere.

Under threat by essay, waves of Irish raiders, much of the essay, land of suffering these two tribes is incorporated into a new territory when Cunedda Wledig and his branch of Romanised Venicones are transferred from the Manau dependency of the Guotodin to secure North Wales from the raiders. They are extremely successful, and the kingdom of Gwynedd is formed by them. Britain is again isolated from Rome by the revolt of Arbogast and Eugenius. Argumentative Essay Prohibition! Theodosius responds by raising his own two year-old son, Honorius, as Western Emperor, and marches on essay, Italy, defeating his enemies at the Battle of commentary thesis Frigidus in 394 on the Italy-Slovenia border. It is possible that Roman forces defeat Saxons, Irish Scots, and the Picts in essay on human, fighting which has been linked to the second of essay Gildas' ' Pictish Wars '. This is the probable source of the essay suffering, Britons' appeal for help to Rome around this time, although it seems possible that there is in fact no victory, and ssrc mellon fellowship Stilicho merely attends to the island's defences before withdrawing more troops.

One of the Saxon Shore forts known to undergo repairs at this time is essay on human, that of Anderitum, in the civitas of the Regninses. The official import of new coinage in large quantities comes to an end. Without those coins, trade as it has been known across the empire begins to stutter and slowly die out. Troops are withdrawn from Britain to form part of the Roman army that defeats a force of Goths and other barbarians in northern Italy. This comes in the same year as further Irish Scotti raids take place on the south coast.

The British provinces are relatively isolated and now constantly lack support from the Empire in international, their fight against barbarian incursions, so from 406 the remaining soldiers raise a series of their own claimants to on human the throne. Marcus is probably Geoffrey of Monmouth's Dionotus, whom he calls the duke of argumentative essay Cornwall. Gracianus Municeps is named by Bede. Elevated Roman soldier. Ruled for a few months. Gracianus Municeps (Gratian) Urban magistratus or councillor.

Ruled for four months. Killed. After failing to win support from Rome in their hour of essay on human suffering need, Geoffrey of Monmouth's semi-mythical history of Britain has the Britons seeking help from commentary thesis Aldroenus, fourth king after Conanus in on human, 'Little Britain, called at that time Armorica or Letavia'. Guithelinus, archbishop of London (see the British Church entry for thematic c.446), is sent to essay on human suffering ask the king to take the crown of Britain, but the country has fallen so far from its former magnificence that he declines the offer. Instead he sends his brother, Constantine, with two thousand soldiers. Constantine is raised to the kingship of Britain. Constantine III (Custennin ap Selyf) Usurper Western Roman emperor. Not content with governing Britain, Constantine has his eye on the imperial purple. With Honorius weak in essay the politics, Italy, he quickly crosses into Gaul and secures the Rhine, making Arles, the recently relocated headquarters of the Gallic prefecture, his capital in on human suffering, 408.

Constans ap Custennin. Son. Caesar. Killed in ssrc international dissertation research fellowship, Gaul. Constantine sends his son, Constans, and General Gerontius to Hispania to defeat the cousins of Roman Emperor Honorius there and secure that province (Gerontius could be the Gerenton mentioned in connection with Domnonia in the Vannetais). Stilicho's forces in Italy rebel and he is executed.

As a result of this and suffering intrigues at the imperial court, plus the fact that Alaric's Visigothic army is roaming Etruria, Honorius is left powerless, and black sheep essay gladly accepts Constantine as co-emperor. The Alans, Suevi and Vandali enter Hispania, disrupting Constantine's hold on his territory. Gerontius rebels against Constantine, and raises Maximus as his own puppet emperor. Suffering! With Constantine now in serious difficulties in Gaul, further Saxon raids convince the British and Armoricans to rebel and expel Roman officials, thereby breaking ties with Rome that are never renewed. Roman presence in Britain has been dwindling anyway, for at least the previous three decades, so the split probably produces little change, except that British officials now occupy former imperial posts. Records from thematic essay and balances this point become extremely sparse and British control on a national level appears to break down for a time. With the expulsion of Roman officials in essay on human suffering, AD 409, Britain again became independent of Rome and was not re-occupied. The fragmentation which had begun to emerge towards the end of the fourth century now appears to have accelerated, with minor princes, newly declared kings, and Roman-style magistrates all vying for power and influence while also facing the threat of extinction at the hands of the various barbarian tribes who were encroaching on the borders from charles taylor the politics all sides. Various units of laeti and foederati had been settled in the country from the mid-fourth century onwards (probably following the sudden visit to Britain by Emperor Constans in 343). By 409 they had been settled for essay on human suffering up to sixty years, and may not have retained much of their 'Germanness'. The country was probably filled with immigrants from all over the former empire: Italians, Gauls, Spanish, Danubians, many of them the descendants of legionnaires and all settled for some time.

By now they were part of the very fabric of the country. However, as Edward Dawson points out, later units of laeti may not have been so settled, and there appear to have been large numbers of them around many towns in the south-east of Britain. Amongst all the empire's immigrants, it was the Germanic groups who best retained their cultural identity, sometimes for generations, continuing to research teach their children German when others were learning Latin, or perhaps native British. When fresh waves of Germans arrived, conquering all in their path, it was probably not hard for the settled Germans to experience a change of loyalty. The new states that appeared in Britain (and in some cases disappeared) or were consolidated in the fifth century include Alt Clut, Bernaccia, Bro Erech, Caer Celemion, Caer Colun, Caer Gloui, Caer Gwinntguic, Caer Went, Ceint, Cernyw, Cornouaille, Cornubia, Demetia, Domnonia, Dumnonia, Ebrauc, Elmet, Ercing, Guotodin, Gwent, Gwynedd, Powys, Rhegin, and Vannetais. The region around Caer Lind Colun may also have been under independent British control for a short time, although this was quickly subsumed by essay, Lindsey. It may have been in this period in which emerged the Welsh concept of Lloegr (Lloegyr, Logris or Loegria).

This was a span of territory which was roughly analogous to England south of the Humber, and was remarkably similar to the civilian-controlled areas of Roman Britain, south and charles taylor of recognition east of the military zones of Wales and the North, most clearly shown on the accompanying maps in the AD 70-79 period. Could it have been purely a local term used by tribal Britons to refer to the areas that were under Roman law (continued by essay on human suffering, the post-Roman administration) instead of military or royal rule (which covered the North and the western principalities by this period)? The name Lloegr may stem from the Latin 'legibus', which means 'laws', and which was also present in Oscan as 'ligis'. There may not have been a Celtic equivalent as this may have been a new word, something that hadn't existed when the commentary thesis, Celts and Latins shared a common language. It also has to be wondered just who coined this new name.

Was it the Romanised Britons in the south of Britannia who took the general Latin word for laws, 'legibus', and mangled it, or fused it with some Gaulish or Old Brythonic cognate, to form a proper noun which referred to the area of Britannia that was not under military rule or royal tribal rule, indicating that it was ruled by on human suffering, Roman civil law (and therefore, perhaps, a cut above the rough-and-ready North and West). The result might be Lloegr, a word that later entered the Welsh language as the name for England as a whole. (Additional information by Mick Baker and Edward Dawson, and from The Landscape of taylor essay the politics King Arthur , Geoffrey Ashe, from The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Lindsey , Kevin Leahy, from The Oxford History of England: The English Settlements , J N L Meyers, from Herefrith of Louth, Saint and Bishop; A Problem of Identities , A E B Owen, from Lincolnshire History and suffering Archaeology , Vol XV, from The Oxford History of England: Anglo-Saxon England , Sir Frank Stenton, and from the Historia Brittonum ( The History of the Britons ), Nennius (J A Giles, Ed Trans, 1841, published as part of of reading essay Six Old English Chronicles (Henry G Bohn, London, 1848)).) This is a period in which central administration apparently breaks down to an extent, with local administrative centres and on human then rulers beginning to appear. Essay! The climb to on human suffering power of Vortigern of the Pagenses seems to reverse this trend, although in some regions he probably has to administer what are in effect kingdoms rather than provinces. Quite possibly, in true Roman fashion, he acquires the title of emperor, perhaps proclaiming himself 'Emperor of Britannia' in order to cement his hold on checks and balances, power. It seems that he and Aurelius Ambrosius of Caer Gloui form the figureheads for opposing parties, but for the moment it is essay suffering, he who has dominance.

During this period, mercenaries, or laeti , are settled in some regions of the country, possibly to bolster populations of foederati and laeti that may already have been in place for some generations. Groups are known to exist along the Thames Valley, in the north of Caer Celemion, and argumentative essay prohibition along the Saxon Shore from Caer Gwinntguic to Ceint and Caer Went. There is a strong economic reason for placing them in the Thames Valley and essay other lowland areas. Northern coastal Germans (Angles, Jutes, Frisians and Saxons) are accustomed to employing a farm economy set in lowlands, not uplands. They know how to work marshes and charles essay river valleys, so these settlement areas suit them entirely. A synod is held in Carthage (the Council of essay on human suffering Carthage) in the Roman province of thematic essay checks Africa which takes a firm line against the Pelagian 'heresy'. Pelagius (c.354-420/440) is a British ascetic who has allegedly denied the doctrine of original sin and he finds many supporters in Britain and the British Church, especially amongst the educated classes. The use of coinage (usually silver coins) as the means of substantial payment seems to die out within ten years of this date. However, a high level of self-sufficiency in essay suffering, both civil service and the army has already become the established norm in Britain for the best part of a century, so this in itself is far from international dissertation research fellowship being a sign of the collapse of civilisation. Triphun is the Irish leader of the Disi in essay on human suffering, Demetia. As the fourth generation of Disi to have been raised in Britain, the tribe now has roots in the country and has clearly developed a certain degree of of reading essay reliability and trustworthiness.

By taking a Roman name, Triphun has become part of the British ruling elite, so much so that he is able to marry Gweldyr, the Romano-British heiress of Demetia and become king himself of what becomes known as Dyfed. Wortigernos / Vitalinus (Vortigern) King of Pagenses. First emperor of Britain? Died by suffering, fire. St Germanus, bishop of thematic Auxerre, and essay on human Lupus, bishop of Troyes, visit Britain to argumentative prohibition fight the Pelagian 'heresy' that is running rampant through the British Church. They meet with a still extant Romano-British aristocracy (the principle proponents of the essay, heresy), probably at Verulamium (Caer Mincip, possibly administered from Caer Colun). Mellon Dissertation! The following year, in line with standard Roman imperial policy in Gaul, Vortigern brings in Saxon allies to help restore order along the borders. Aurelius Ambrosius of Caer Gloui is apparently a leader of a British council, which presumably answers to Vortigern. It is his decision to confirm the Irish Deisi as commanders of the Demetia area of the west coast to counter the threat of Irish raiders.

Vortigern acquiesces and on human assigns Ambrosius 'Dinas Emrys and all the western lands', suggesting that Ambrosius becomes the architect for the defence of these western areas. This is motivated by the council's reluctance to ssrc international research fellowship depend entirely on Saxon mercenaries, with their constant demands for increased provisions, especially in an area were they would be lightly supervised. The Deisi have already been settled for some time and suffering would be self-supporting. According to Gildas and Nennius when referring either to Aurelianus Ambrosius (Ambrosius the Elder) or his son, this family represents the essay, Romanised nobility in Britain, and they appear to be based at the city of Caer Gloui and its surrounding territories. Suffering! They are the main opposition to Vortigern's pro-Celtic faction, and it is at pleasures of reading poetry, this time that the increasing animosity between the two groups erupts into internecine warfare. The factions fight the Battle of Guolloppum (Cat Guolph, Wallop in Hampshire). The result is uncertain, but it is probably followed by essay on human suffering, a period of civil strife in eastern and southern Britain. Ambrosius the Elder. Leader of the Romanised opposition in alcohol, Britain. On Human Suffering! Killed by poetry essay, plague. Saxon foederati and laeti (settled on the east coast and essay on human Thames Valley, and probably increased in number since the barbarian raids on Britain of 409) take advantage of the unrest and openly revolt.

As a cause they cite the pleasures of reading poetry, failure of the British to suffering supply them with provisions which may have been reduced to thesis zero as a consequence of the civil war. By 441, the Gallic Chronicles report large sections of on human Britain under German control following Saxon revolt: Britain, abandoned by the Romans, passed into the power of the Saxons. Communications between Britain and Gaul are disrupted, vacated towns and commentary cities are in ruin. The migration of Romano-British towards the west and to Armorica turns into a torrent, with emigrants coming especially from Dumnonia and Cornubia. The country begins to be divided geographically, along factional lines. St Germanus' second visit to Britain rids the country of the last of the Pelagian heresy when he visits Elafius' subjects. Essay Suffering! Elafius seems likely to be the sheep, leader of the territory of on human suffering Caer Gwinntguic. Mellon International Research! Severe plague hits southern Britain in the same year, and on human unburied bodies are to be found in the streets of cities such as Caer Ceri.

Former Celtic tribal associations continue to re-emerge as independent territories and kingdoms develop over the course of the fifth century. Commentary! There is evidence of the reuse and refortification of Iron Age hill forts. Cadbury Congresbury in Somerset is producing substantial quantities of Mediterranean pottery, with smaller amounts also coming from South Cadbury as local leaders move their residences to more protected locations. It is attacks by the Picts (under Drust mac Erp) and Irish Scotti that prompts Vortigern to hire Jutish and essay on human Angle mercenaries to fight them off. Hengist and Horsa are invited into Britain and of reading poetry essay land at Ypwines fleot (Ebbsfleet). Essay On Human Suffering! Traditionally, they fulfil the terms of their contract by fighting back the invaders and pleasures of reading receive territory on which to settle on the island of Ynys Tanatus (Thanet) in essay on human suffering, Ceint (although according to British oral tradition, they are first given territory around the Wash and only gain Tanatus after their numbers are swelled by a massive influx of their countrymen). According to later British tradition, Vortigern is removed from office by the council after trying to settle yet more foreign laeti in Britain, this time in the north-east, within the territory of the 'Kingdom of Northern Britain'. The high kingship is given to his eldest son, the able and popular Vortimer. Hengist, seeing that he no longer has a malleable ally, revolts and the territory or kingdom of Ceint is quickly overrun. Son of Vortigern. King of Gwent.

Appointed to replace Vortigern. In the east of the island, the new and argumentative essay prohibition more serious foederati revolt sees a loss of territory to Jutes and Angles that is never regained by the Britons. The new arrivals have seen how weak are the suffering, British defences and begin a takeover of the kingdom of the politics of recognition Ceint, aided by the many foederati settlements in key areas of the land, especially along the Saxon Shore forts and at Canterbury. They are probably further encouraged by the chaos in Roman Gaul following the murder of the magister militum Aetius. Hengist's polyglot army fights British forces (traditionally commanded by Vortimer) at essay on human, a place they name gelesthrep or gelsthrep (probably Aylesford or, less likely, Epsford, both in thesis, Kent). Vortimer's brother, Cadeyrn Fendigaid, king of the Pagenses, is killed, as is essay, Hengist's brother, Horsa. Again according to taylor essay later tradition, Vortimer is poisoned and his death allows Vortigern to reclaim the high kingship temporarily before he is faced by Ambrosius Aurelianus. Vortigern flees to on human suffering his ancestral lands, 'at the of reading essay, fortified camp of Genoreu, on the hill called Cloartius', in Ercing, by the River Wye. There he meets his end when Ambrosius sets fire to his fortress with him inside it. Historically speaking, as much as extremely limited historical knowledge will allow, Aurelianus and his probable successor, Artorius, seem to lead the fight to preserve the remaining British territory. If Vortigern had titled himself 'Emperor of essay suffering Britannia', then it seems reasonable to assume that his successors copy this, but after Artorius even the poetry, grounds for this supposition become reduced.

As if all that isn't enough, in the region of Deywr within the 'Kingdom of Northern Britain', Soemel is noted by essay on human, the later royal pedigree as someone who 'separated Deira from Bernicia'. Charles Essay The Politics Of Recognition! It seems to be Soemel who probably refuses to blindly obey orders and instead establishes negotiated terms of service, perhaps on essay, a semi-independent basis. This time of chaos and confusion would be an ideal date for this event. At the the politics of recognition, same time, it would seem likely that Angles from Deywr are settling in Lindsey, which may still be under Romano-British control. Ambrosius Aurelianus (Riothamus?) Magistrate of Caer Gloui. Possible 2nd emperor of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth proposes an almost entirely mythical account of the life of Ambrosius Aurelianus.

It ends with him being poisoned by essay suffering, Saxons, and his brother, Uther Pendragon, succeeds him. Alcohol Prohibition! Uther immediately sets out to attack the Saxons involved in essay on human, his brother's death, who have teamed up with Paschent (Pascent of Buellt), son of Vortigern, and a young nobleman of dissertation fellowship Ireland named Gillomanius (could this individual be the contemporaneous High King Leguire macNill?). Uther defeats them all, killing Paschent and essay suffering Gillomanius. Then Uther has to defeat a resurgent Octa (which scholars think might actually be the real name of Hengist of Kent) before enjoying a largely peaceful reign that leads up to the well-known death of Gorlois of Cornwall and the birth of albino black sheep Arthur Pendragon (with this event, according to legend, taking place in Tintagel, possibly a Dumnonian royal court at this time). After much hard fighting at a place called Crecganford (Crayford in Kent), and apparently heavy losses, the British abandon Ceint.

The Saxons who had joined Hengist in 455 also settle in what is on human suffering, becoming Kent, but they have little impact on charles taylor the politics, the Jutish nature of the kingdom and on human leave few traces. Some of them instead push further west to form early elements of the Middel Seaxe. Occupation of Cadbury Castle is pleasures poetry essay, re-established, perhaps selected for its defensive capabilities in these troubled times. Its reoccupation is not in essay on human suffering, the form of a city or an established seat of government for taylor the politics of recognition successive rulers. Instead it seems to be a place that a British leader of stature, perhaps Ambrosius Aurelianus, or Riothamus (if they are not one and the same person), makes his personal headquarters. Riothamus, 'King of the Britons', crosses the essay on human, Channel to Gaul, bringing 12,000 ship-borne troops. 'Riothamus' is a title rather than a name, apparently meaning 'supreme king', which raises the possibility that he is Ambrosius Aurelianus. Riothamus remains in the country for a year or more (perhaps reinforced by Armorican Bretons), and advances to Bourges and argumentative prohibition even further.

Gaul's imperial prefect, the deputy of the Western Roman emperor, treacherously undermines him by apparently dealing with the Visigoths. Caught by surprise by the Visigoths, Riothamus fights a drawn-out battle near Bourges but is eventually defeated when no imperial forces come to his assistance. Essay! He escapes with the remnants of his army into the nearby territory of the Burgundians, never to be heard of again. A second battle soon follows which involves a combined army consisting of units of Romans, troops from Soissons under Comes Paulus, and Burgundian foederati , but they are also defeated, and Soissons and Armorica are cut off from Rome. The disappearance from albino black essay history of Riothamus does not rule out the possibility of him successfully returning to Britain, but this would also be a reasonable date for Arthur to take command of essay on human Britain's defence as his successor.

Newly arrived Saxons under lle and his sons land at commentary, Cymens ora and beat off the Britons who oppose their landing (part of the proposed British kingdom of Rhegin), driving them to take refuge in the great forest called Andredesleag (The Weald). These Saxons quickly become known as the Suth Seaxe. Artorius / Arthur Pendragon. Son of Uthyr/Uther Eigr. Possible 3rd emperor of Britain. There is essay suffering, a great deal of material that has been written about checks Arthur, or more properly Artorius, but there is little direct proof of essay on human suffering his existence. For that reason, several scholars have chosen to disbelieve entirely in his existence. However, it seems impossible that an individual who makes such an argumentative impact on history that later generations of kings name their sons after him, and who is included in a vast body of literature could not exist. In an historical sense, it seems logical to place him in the last few decades of the fifth century, governing, or at least protecting, the country after Ambrosius Aurelianus and before his traditional date of death in 511 (or 537 by some sources), and perhaps claiming Cadbury Castle as his headquarters. Traditionally, again, he is the son of Eigr (Ygerna), the daughter of essay suffering Anblaud 'the Imperator', who has a connection to essay alcohol Ercing.

He marries Guinevere, a medieval form of a Cornish name which is probably Veneva (and which descends as the modern Jennifer). She is a princess of Dumnonia, and on human possibly a sister to King Gerren. Artorius himself is primarily a leader of cavalry, the best weapon of the British against the foot-slogging Saxons for as long as they can maintain their breeding stock. Thesis! This is the force he leads against Geoffrey of Monmouth's Saxon leaders, Colgrin, Badulf, and Chelderic (the first of whom is sometimes linked to Deywr), while being supported by King Hoel of Brittany. Essay On Human Suffering! This is also how he enters into legend. Clovis of the Franks defeats, captures and executes Syagrius, the last Roman commander of Soissons. The Franks are now completely dominant in essay, northern Gaul and Roman control has been thrown off. The death of Syagrius also sends a signal to the Saxons and other Germanic peoples that attempting to essay settle in Gaul is now hopeless.

This would seem to be the single defining event that forces the commentary thesis, Saxons to turn their attention to invading Britain instead. This is the essay suffering, last recorded entry for albino sheep essay the Jutes of Kent in suffering, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle until 565. The battles against the Britons move further westwards as they lose the south coast to the Suth Seaxe, Londinium to the Middel Seaxe and their Suther-ge, and the Upper Thames to the Thames Valley Saxons and Ciltern Saetan. However, the influx of Saxon fighters may have slackened since 460, when the prospects for soldiers of fortune may have seemed better in the remnants of Roman Gaul, coupled with the sheep, fact that the Britons are apparently starting to gain the upper hand (especially in the traditional twelve victorious battles of essay Arthur in locations such as Lind Colun). Despite this apparent improvement in fortunes, the sense of profound shock that has been dealt to British society by events since the first major Saxon revolt around 441 has triggered changes that will see the rapid mutation of British into early Welsh in the space of about a century.

Young people in this period who grow up with British and Latin languages may be hearing their grandchildren speaking a different tongue. Even the charles of recognition, bardic tradition begins to break down, with the sounds and patterns of their words destroyed by the changes. Much of the Iron Age tradition is lost, although fragments survive. According to on human suffering tradition Cerdic lands in five ships on argumentative, the south coast at Cerdices ora, together with Saxon and possibly some Jutish companions, and begins a takeover of the local Jutish, Saxon and sub-Roman territories. The Jutes and Saxons who are already settled there are apparently already referring to themselves as the West Seaxe (possibly separate from the earlier Meonware settlers to the east). The fighting begins on the same day as Cerdic 'arrives', suggesting that his potential power play begins in violence or immediate resistance. If Cerdic is in on human suffering, fact a Briton who rebels against the remaining central authority (which seems to be a distinct possibility), then given his location he could be serving as a magistrate of the Belgae territory of Caer Gwinntguic until he seizes part of the tribe's territory in order to found his own little empire. It is another blow to British unity and defence. Arthur commands the defence of the politics Mons Badonicus against a confederation of Saxon and essay Jutish warriors which is led by lle of the albino black sheep, Suth Saxe.

The British victory grants them a generation of relative peace and suffering consigns the South Saxons to subsequent obscurity. All building and repair work on major new defensive works probably comes to an end with the victory. There is of reading poetry essay, now a gap in Germanic Bretwaldas for the next half century. This is probably due to the Mons Badonicus defeat and the long peace between the on human suffering, Britons and the Germanic coastal settlements. As there is no significant warfare, there can be no significantly superior war leader to push forward the Germanic advance. Quite the opposite, in fact, as there seems to be a reverse migration of Angles and Saxons into the Continent during the first half of the sixth century. Geoffrey of Monmouth has Arthur handing the argumentative essay alcohol, kingship over to Constantine, but that would presume that the dating shown here is wrong. An alternative date (also given by essay suffering, Geoffrey) for pleasures poetry Arthur's retreat to Avalon (Glastonbury in Dumnonia) is essay suffering, 542, which would provide an overlap between Arthur and Constantine, but would displace Arthur's fifth century activity against of reading essay, the Saxons. This revision might only work if his father, Utherpendragon, had actually existed and essay on human suffering had enjoyed the long reign given to him by Geoffrey. Constantine / Custennin ab Cado.

On the thesis, Continent, the Franks of Austrasia conquer the Thuringians. Portions of territory are lost to the Saxons, probably to suffering the Continental Saxons, but there also seems to be a reverse migration of Germanics from the east coast of Britain, where the recent British victory at ssrc, Mons Badonicus has cut them off from the acquisition of new lands. These returning Angles and essay Saxons appear to be given land in Thuringia by King Theuderich. However, it is essay prohibition, also at this time, in this century, that the migration of Britons from the mainland to essay on human Brittany is at commentary, its heaviest, weakening the British defensive position for the future. King of the formerly client Disi of Demetia.

Vortipor(us) of the Disi of Demetia is clearly a powerful figure in British history, as noted by his being included in the list of high kings of Britain. His name has been recorded in various ways, from the Latinised Vortipor itself, to the Gaulish Voteporix, and the (perhaps) more genuinely original Vortepor mac Aricol. Even this has been recorded as Gartbuir mac Alchoil. Malgo / Maglocun / Maelgwyn Gwynedd. In the north, the British kingdom of Bernaccia is on human suffering, seized by the Angles who have been serving as laeti and the ruling king, Morgan Bulc is forced out. Charles The Politics Of Recognition! He takes refuge with the Guotodin, shifting his power base there, but the loss leaves a gaping hole in the defences of the eastern coastline. It is the essay, first such breach in the defences of the north, despite a century of such chaos to the south of Britain, and suddenly the defensive strength of the Men of the North looks shaky. Following the death of the powerful Maelgwyn, and given the argumentative essay, dearth of information about the suffering, Northern British kings at ssrc mellon fellowship, this time, it is entirely plausible to place Keretic and the 'three unnamed tyrants' below as kings in the North. The Yellow Plague that sweeps the country hits the Britons far harder than it does the invaders, finally shifting the balance of power in favour of the latter. Even the Picts seem to be affected by the plague, with the possible loss of at least one of their kings, Drust mac Munaith, in 552.

It is odd to have such a gap so late in essay on human, the list, but not if those rulers were from the poorly documented North. Ssrc Mellon International Dissertation Research Fellowship! The Saxon advance in the south also lends weight to this hypothesis (by Mick Baker). Their westwards advance becomes much more rapid, with them soon swallowing much of Somerset and Dorset from Dumnonia. Essay Suffering! The Angles also advance, taking large swathes of black essay central and northern Britain, and ending any realistic claim by suffering, the high kings of Britain to rule over thesis, the whole island. Three unnamed tyrants now claim the high kingship. On Human! The names below are accepted as high kings in essay alcohol, other references, and their dates fall conveniently into the gap left between the reigns of Malgo and Keretic, but they are not in the list formed by Geoffrey of Monmouth. To differentiate them, they are shown here in red text.

King of Bernaccia (to 547), and Guotodin (c.560 onwards). The West Seaxe conquest of Caer Gwinntguic proves that the southern Saxons have recovered from on human suffering their massive Mons Badonicus defeat. From this point onwards, the Britons continually lose territory until the modern borders of the politics of recognition Wales are decided. Caer Gloui, together with Caer Baddan and Caer Ceri, falls to the West Seaxe. With this collapse, the territory of Caer Celemion to the east is now totally isolated, and Dumnonia is essay on human suffering, cut off from any overland contact with other surviving British territories (and largely disappears from the overall story as far as the rest of the argumentative alcohol, Britons are concerned).

Gwent and Pengwern now form the western frontier against further Saxon advances. The Hwicce take over the territory and eventually push its borders north into on human, Worcestershire, at the expense of Pengwern. Keretic / Keredic / Ceredig. Probably the same Ceretic as in Elmet. Ebrauc (York) falls to the Angles of essay alcohol prohibition Deira.

It is a major blow to British hopes of regaining control of the country and blots out at least two and-a-half centuries of Christian worship in one of the British Church's key bishoprics. It seems likely that, if he exists, Geoffrey of suffering Monmouth's Archbishop Tadioceus of York flees the city with the rest of the nobility, holding his title as an pleasures exile, perhaps from Elmet. The Annales Cambriae records the death of Dynod of Dunoting in battle against the Bernicians. He is probably the last British ruler of the Pennines (unless the essay, remnants of the territory are absorbed into North Rheged). His family are forced to flee to Powys, including his second son, the famous bard, Aneirin, while another son, Deiniol, is already in albino, Gwynedd as the British Church's first bishop of Bangor. By this time the Deiran and on human suffering Bernician Angles are pushing far into argumentative essay alcohol prohibition, British territory, and the Iclingas are expanding to the south with only Elmet and Cynwidion holding out in this region as enclaves until 616-617, and South Rheged until about 613.

The Gododdin is a long series of elegies composed from the essay on human suffering, early seventh century onwards which commemorates a force of Britons who assemble in Guotodin at thesis, this time. This force marches south to fight the Angles at Catreath and seemingly attacks the Roman fort near the strategic road junction now called Scotch Corner. Ultimately, the battle is a disaster for the Britons. The flower of the Northern British warrior class is on human, decimated by the superior numbers of the Bernicians. Guotodin, as well as the other kingdoms of the north, probably including Elmet, are all fatally weakened by the defeat. The first meeting between the Roman Church in the form of St Augustine of Canterbury, and the Celtic Church (the descendant of the former British Church of the Roman period) takes place. It is arranged when thelbert of the Cantware uses the Hwicce as intermediaries, and the meeting goes favourably for Augustine. A second meeting is quickly arranged, although perhaps not in the same year.

This takes place at Abberley in Worcestershire, probably close to the border between the Hwicce and Pengwern. It is attended by seven bishops of the Celtic Church, along with many learned monks, mainly from Bangor-is-Coed (in Pengwern). The meeting ends in disappointment for the Roman envoy, with no agreements of cooperation or unity being reached between the two churches, especially in regard to essay alcohol the important question of the calculations for Easter and evangelising the pagan English. The territory of Caer Celemion is destroyed, probably by Ceawlin of the essay on human, West Seaxe. Albino Sheep Essay! It is the last British-held territory south of London and east of Dorset to fall. The town of Calleva Atrebatum is abandoned and its wells are filled in to prevent its citizens from returning. Pressure from the Ciltern Saetan to the south and the Middil Engle to the north forces the essay, kingdom of black sheep Calchwynedd into collapse around this time. The territory is subjugated by the rapidly growing power of the kingdom of Mercia, which in this period often shows signs of essay suffering being partially British itself, either in its early ancestry in Britain or in its choice of allies and the people who probably form a good percentage of the population. After Keretic, the high kings are dominant only in Wales and surviving British western territories. However, even contact with territories such as Dumnonia, Elmet, and Gododdin are becoming tenuous, as the lines of communication are cut.

In the first half of the seventh century, the whole of pleasures of reading essay northern Britain is lost, including South Rheged around this time, cutting off Alt Clut, Gododdin, and Galwyddel. Further tragedy is about to strike. In one of the bloodiest and hardest fought battles of its time, several British kings form a coalition to on human suffering halt thelfrith of Bernicia at the Battle of Caer Legion (Chester). Cearl of the thematic essay and balances, Mercians could also be involved on the British side (according to scholarly theory). Iago of Gwynedd and Selyf of Powys are both killed, and the battle is a disastrous British defeat. Cadwallon (and probably his father) already holds a claim on on human suffering, the crown of Deira as part of his domains. He now apparently includes Elmet in commentary thesis, this claim, following the kingdom's conquest by essay suffering, Edwin of Deira. Cadwallo / Cadwallon ap Cadfan.

King of Gwynedd. Claimed the Deiran crown, including Elmet. Uniquely, perhaps, Penda of Mercia allies himself not to other English kingdoms but to the Brito-Welsh of the charles taylor the politics, west Midlands and Wales. In this year, already working in alliance with Cadwallon, Penda kills Edwin of on human suffering Bernicia and black essay Deira at the Battle of Hatfield Chase (just outside the western borders of Lindsey). It seems that, up until this great victory, Penda is the junior partner in the alliance, but following Cadwallon's death in 634 he holds all the cards and is senior partner in the alliance with Pengwern. King of Gwynedd. Last high king of Britain. Cadwaladr is probably killed by the great plague that hits the country. There is no obvious candidate to essay on human replace him, and such is the extent of the loss of territory over the past century that there is no longer a 'British' Britain over which to claim any high kingship. Instead, the rival Anglo-Saxon Bretwaldaship takes precedence.

Kingdoms such as Dyfed, Gwynedd, and Powys remain independent in the west, with Dumnonia in essay alcohol, the south-west, and Alt Clut in the far north, but everywhere else the English are in control. A revised form of the British high kingship later emerges in medieval Wales, but only after centuries of internecine rivalry to work out just who qualifies as a 'prince of Wales'.

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Common Application Is Removing a Surprising Essay Topic. The Choice takes readers backstage as nearly 5,000 admissions officers and counselors gather in Denver. The new Common Application — a universal form that allows students to apply to essay on human suffering multiple colleges and universities — is ssrc mellon fellowship, going Web-only next year, and is bringing with it some surprising changes to the essay rules, The Chronicle of Higher Education reports. At the annual meeting of the National Association for College Admissions Counselors, which was held in Denver last week, representatives from the Common Application discussed the changes, which will begin on Aug. 1, 2013. The new Common App is removing the “topic of your choice” essay option, an announcement that “was met with gasps,” The Chronicle reported. Instead, there will be four or five topics that may change from year to year. This change has already prompted a discussion among college counselors of the essay on human, pros and cons of limiting the freedom of this essay. The new Common App will also be a stickler for essay lengths. The 250-word minimum will be enforced. Students who exceed the 500-word maximum will face an commentary error message.

Other changes include updates to the user interface and the elimination of the ability to upload a resume, unless specifically requested by the particular college. What do you think of the new Common App? Let us know your thoughts in the comments box below. Comments are no longer being accepted. This change flies in the wrong direction. On Human! I feel for the unfortunate application reviewers who will be bored out of their minds by the same ol, same ol, on the essay. But the applicants will be far more seriously disadvantaged. Taylor Essay The Politics Of Recognition! The only POSSIBLE topic for a good college essay is “topic of your choice.” Maybe we are heading toward a day when CommonApp will simply be another “netadmit calculator,” where students insert GPA, name of suffering school, and test scores, perhaps with an optional code for taylor essay of recognition level or number of extracurricular activities, and on human, the lucky student can pay a hefty application fee to get Instant Admission or Rejection.

I wish they would reconsider this! It hurts creativity. Just look at the NY Times story….. Stuck on essay alcohol prohibition, the Essay? Try Writing a Letter to an Imaginary College Roommate. This is on human, very disappointing news. How are students to “convey their voice,” the alleged point of the essay when they aren’t given the freedom to write about what they want. Furthermore, the international research, elimination of the option to upload a resume is detrimental to any student with atypical extracurricular activities. You’re given only essay suffering, a few words to commentary thesis explain each extracurricular activity.

For some students, really fascinating and essay suffering, important activities won’t make any sense to admissions officers. International Dissertation Fellowship! Of course the Common App is moving away from qualitative analysis and is moving toward qualitative only. I am equally appalled that they are enforcing a “minimum.” Really? Succinct writing is no longer valued? Guess the 4-sentence essay that wowed every graduate school and essay suffering, fellowship program I applied to would not cut it with CommonApp. This decision is not consistent with the holistic approach to admissions that colleges say they use. I do not like the elimination of the “topic of your choice” nor do I think that it is a good idea to albino essay eliminate the student resume. These 2 items allow admissions counselors to get to know the suffering, students in a more meaningful way than simply looking at charles taylor essay test scores, GPA, and essay, whatever activities they can explain in the limited space provided on the common app. I hope that they reconsider this. Add me to the list of those highly discouraged about this move. Mellon Dissertation Research Fellowship! The open-ended admissions essay and the ability to submit a resume (I had to mail my resume to on human each school separately, along with an albino explanatory cover letter, when I applied using the Common Application several years ago) were some of the only humanizing aspects of an inherently dehumanizing system.

Colleges have always been free to require supplemental applications where they can demand the essay topics of their choice. Some schools (e.g. University of Chicago) choose to on human differentiate themselves this way, with great success. Colleges also get to see a writing sample on thematic essay checks, a specific prompt, written by the student under high pressure conditions, from the SAT. Is it too much to ask that students be able to write whatever they want for their essay?

This is a major step in essay on human the wrong direction. There are so many talented teens out there who are deserving of a chance to distinguish themselves who will be put at a disadvantage by the elimination of this prompt. The elimination of the resume will also hurt many of and balances these students as well. I hope the colleges who use the on human suffering, common application band together and show their outrage. Maybe it is not too late. Supplementary topics of choice will spring up from those who have the staff to read them and believe that writing skills have value. Most students will be pleased. Forced creativity rarely brings out the best. It would be informative to read some of the albino black sheep essay, truely awful ‘of choice’ topics that drove this sad initiative.

Wow. On Human Suffering! The Common App is black sheep essay, now like the essay suffering, UC (University of California system) app–uninspiring to the students who will struggle to write to commentary the new prompts (isn’t that what supplements are for!) and b-o-r-I-n-g for the admissions rep readers! Perhaps the powers that be just want the essays to suffering live up (or would that be drop down?) to the “common” in checks and balances Common App?! Personally, these changes to essay on human the Common Application strike me as stifling of applicants’ creativity. Applications are digitally bound tomes that, on their most fundamental level, are supposed to serve as facsimiles for the real, live-in-the-flesh applicants.

A successful application is thematic essay checks and balances, one that most effectively distills a person’s voice–whatever that voice may be–and consequently works the best when the applicant is given the freedom to on human speak passionately about what is important to him or her. I know that this is how I felt when I was applying to college, and to be honest, the five or six prescribed prompts did little to catch my enthusiasm. Beyond achievements, I wanted to give colleges a sliver of who I was. And the “create your own” topic was my way of doing it. I’m concerned that the winnowing of possible topics will both hurt admissions offices–given that they will now read about even more of the same half-dozen topics ad nauseum–and students, who lose the chance to express their individual narratives, irrespective of the degree to which the half-dozen prompts invoke passion in the student. Of Recognition! The essay then becomes yet another thing to teach to, another calcified hoop through which to jump. What a terrible idea. What college admissions officer wants to read the same topic over…and over…and over suffering again. How many fresh takes can there be on the same five topics? Terrible moves.

My son wrote a funny and sheep essay, personal essay about a ‘topic of his choice.’ In several information sessions at schools we visited, the admissions officers strongly stated their preference for this option, as helped them to get a better sense of the applicant. What is the benefit of move, and is this what the Common App member schools really want? If a student can’t creatively respond to a prescribed prompt, THAT is the essay on human, problem– not the thesis, prompt. How could they have thought this was a good idea, to get rid of topic of choice? I believe that 80% now choose that. I’d love to hear what the thinking was.

I agree with the others. These change are horrible – glad my daughter is a college freshman already. Her essay was topic of choice which made it very creative and her uploaded resume helped to explain her activities which did not fit into any categories on the common app. The activities section on the common app is terrible and only works well for things like being on a sports team. I do however support the word count enforcement because the way it worked before was confusing and unclear (it said word count but really had some strange character count that it actually enforced.) I think that enforcing the word count restriction with a cut off message is appropriate since the essay on human suffering, Common app has been asking students limit to their word count now for years. In terms of topic choice, it is likely the charles taylor essay the politics of recognition, choices will allow much flexibility in interpretation. My son wrote an essay under topic of his choice but it could have also fallen under a person who influenced you so I wouldn’t get too worried yet.

Having read and revised thousands of college application essays, I fully support the 500-word limit. To begin with, the admissions reader generally loses interest by that point anyway. Essay! The ability to express yourself clearly and concisely is extremely important for college work and this is a way of forcing applicants to “trim the fat” from essay, their work. The bigger change is the inability to essay on human upload a resume. It’s really hard for a lot of kids to really show what they’ve done in high school in the limited space and categories on the Common App. Argumentative Essay Prohibition! The really accomplished kid has no place to on human show it! Terrible idea.

If the point of the essay is to allow colleges to see beyond the grades and stats to get some sense of the person behind the application, the only prompt that makes sense is “tell us something you want us to of reading poetry know about you.” The other common app prompts are really quite mundane. And maybe instead of suffering trying to get kids to shoehorn their activities into the common app categories and taylor of recognition, explain what they are in the limited space given, the common app should just have every kid attach a resume. Kids going through the application process want to know that they will be considered as individuals. The common app is moving toward standardization and superficiality. How do these decisions get made? I agree with the majority of comments here that elimination of the “topic of choice” option is on human suffering, not a good move, and I agree that elimination of resume-upload capacity hurts students with atypical work/activities. After reading the NYTimes “The Cloud Factories” series about environmental impacts of internet data storage, I also regret the Common App decision to take away the paper option. Power, Pollution and taylor essay the politics, the Internet: Data Barns in a Farm Town, Gobbling Power and on human suffering, Flexing Muscle:

As a college freshman who used the option of writing a “topic of your choice” essay, this is a saddening article. The Common App essays and supplements are meant to ssrc dissertation research show a student’s personality, going beyond simply grades and extracurriculars. This new restricted system places a damper on creativity, a step in the wrong direction for essay sure. Unfortunately, removing the “topic of your choice” option from the Common App will further disadvantage first-generation, low-income, and other minority students who may be prevented from representing the nuance of their typically unique life experiences and challenges. Additionally, if the essay topics change from argumentative essay prohibition, year to essay year, students may not be able to draft their essays over commentary thesis the summer. Sorry, I disagree with most everyone here. Dropping the “topic of on human suffering your choice” essay is a great move for two major reasons. First, most students can’t answer it in a coherent, focused manner – and they all want to answer it. Thematic Essay And Balances! Second, it’s not representative of questions they will be asked in on human suffering college, so it’s not a good indicator of college writing preparedness. The other questions certainly give ample opportunity for first-generation and low-income students to detail their life experiences.

Person of influence, a challenge you have faced, diversity you can bring – these all can detail the experiences of traditionally under-represented groups. That said, I hope they don’t change the questions too often/that much. The students in black sheep my 11th grade class are crafting responses to the current common app questions in order to be ready for on human early decision applications next year. Bad choice. Not only do I agree with #20 above regarding the switch to a Web-only option, I also disagree [with the argumentative alcohol, NASSP*] on the following points: – While claiming to be the same form online as on essay, paper, the user experience is just not the same. The online form tends toward quantitative analysis. Thematic Checks And Balances! It even states upfront that certain responses may be cut off! Not sure where the NASSP* is trying to on human go with these changes. – Also, the removal of the option to make up a topic of your choice is quite disappointing. I think LP hit the argumentative essay alcohol, nail on the head with the direction the new Common Application is taking.

Standardisation and superficiality. Think about that for a minute. * Or whichever governing body decides the essay on human, fate of the Common Application. By removing “topic of choice,” the Common App challenges applicants by forcing them to think creatively under constraints. Anyone can ramble on about whatever they want, but a truly successful and creative writer can surprise the reader under tight restrictions. It’s the same as writing under certain poem structures–even though you have to follow the rules, you can still express yourself. This is the same reason I think enforcing the word count is thesis, a good idea, because it forces applicants to writes as effectively as possible. As for the resume, if there’s something in you would like to elaborate on, why not do it in your essay or in the space specifically for elaborating on essay on human, an extracurricular activity? The extracurricular section itself has plenty of essay and balances room for essay on human talking about your specific extracurricular activities (you don’t have to list that you were a kitchen assistant for a day at your local summer camp, just list your principal positions/awards). Again, the ability to format your activities to fit into their form shows the pleasures poetry, application readers that you are flexible and efficient in transferring information and essay, shows respect for thematic checks their time as they don’t have the essay on human suffering, time to read through thousands of of recognition applicants individually formatted resumes when an acceptable system is essay on human, already in place.

Sure, you may feel like the system makes you “just another generic applicant,” but creativity and thesis, passion need form to be effective.