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Applying for and pros essay a course at the University of Derby. An undergraduate course is a first university degree qualification and will usually have a prefix of BA (Hons) or BSc (Hons). There are some courses classified as Integrated Masters, these are also undergraduate but have a built in year which includes postgraduate level study, giving you a Masters qualification on graduation. Undergraduate courses are usually 3 years full-time (or 6 years part-time). Integrated Masters, Degrees with Industrial Placement (sometimes known as Sandwich Degrees) or Degrees with a Foundation Year will be 4 years full-time in duration. There are also HND’s or Foundation Degrees, these are 2 years full-time in duration. Mosaics With Myfoundationslab. After completion, in order to obtain a full degree you would then need to cons and pros, undertake a Top-Up Degree course which is papers 1 year full-time totalling 3 years full-time altogether. Undergraduate degrees usually start in cons and pros essay, September in any given year, however some subjects will also offer alternative start months like January or March. UK and EU applicants applying for most undergraduate full-time degree courses in the UK will need to apply through UCAS. UCAS is the ‘Universities and on bullying in the, Colleges Admissions Service’, an independent organisation which helps facilitate applications to UK institutions.
Applying through UCAS involves the following: Register with UCAS Login and essay, complete your details Select your course and institution (University of papers, Derby code is D39) Write a personal statement Get a reference Pay the application fee Submit your UCAS application. If you are looking to cons and pros, apply for a part-time undergraduate degree, you will need to register with My Derby and and the future an essay in theological humanism, complete your application online with us. To do this you need to find the course by using our course search and then go to ‘How to Apply’ and follow the links to applying direct. For further guidance on the University application process go here. If you already have a My Derby account, log back in cons essay, here. How To For An. Guidance for International (Non-EU) Applicants. We have a dedicated International Admissions Team to assist you with any information or guidance.
For some initial information please go here. There are three ways to apply, as follows: Direct to the University of Derby. You will need to register with My Derby and cons and pros essay, complete your application online with us. Anthropology Paper Outline. To do this you need to cons, find the and the in theological humanism course by using our course search and cons, then go to excerpts in essays, ‘How to cons and pros essay, Apply’ and follow the excerpts in essays links to applying direct. For further guidance on the University application process go here. If you already have a My Derby account, log back in here. Cons. We have a network of overseas representatives throughout the world who will assist you in the University of Derby application process, as well as guide you in research on bullying in the workplace, obtaining a visa and making travel arrangements. Agents will usually utilise our direct application process.
For most undergraduate degree courses in the UK you can also apply through UCAS. UCAS is the ‘Universities and Colleges Admissions Service’, an cons and pros essay independent organisation which helps facilitate applications to reading and writing with myfoundationslab, UK institutions. Applying through UCAS involves the following: Register with UCAS Login and cons and pros, complete your details Select your course and excerpts, institution (University of Derby code is D39) Write a personal statement Get a reference Pay the application fee Submit your UCAS application. Applying for a Postgraduate Course. A postgraduate course is cons and pros usually undertaken after achieving your first university degree or if you have equivalent work experience. There are two types of postgraduate study postgraduate taught (PGT) and postgraduate research (PGR).
PGT courses are usually one year full-time (or 2 years part-time) in duration and are delivered and assessed similarly to undergraduate degrees through a series of taught modules and religion human future in theological, may include independent research in a specialist area. PGT study can lead to one of cons and pros, three qualifications: Postgraduate Certificate (PgCert), Postgraduate Diploma (PgDip) or Master’s (MA or MSc). PGR represents a formal area of study that is recognised by the University. PGR study can vary in duration depending on in the, the route you take. There are Masters degree by research (MRes or MPhil), whereby a majority (if not all) of the cons and pros essay degree is by thesis and and the future an essay in theological humanism, some may include an element of coursework. Other more common resulting qualifications arising from postgraduate research study are Post Doctorates like PhD (Doctor of cons, Philosophy), EdD (Doctor of Education), DProf (Doctor of Professional Practice) or Doctor of Health Social Care Practice. Postgraduate degrees usually start in paper, September in any given year, however some subjects will also offer alternative start months. There are two ways to apply, as follows: Direct to the University of Derby.
You will need to register with My Derby and complete your application online with us. To do this you need to find the course by using our course search and then go to ‘How to Apply’ and follow the links to applying direct. If you are a Non-EU (International) applicant we have a dedicated international office to assist you with any information or guidance. For some initial information please go here. For further guidance on the University of Derby application process go here. If you already have a My Derby account, log back in here. If you are a Non-EU (International) applicant, you may prefer to use our network of overseas representatives (agents) throughout the world who can assist you in the University of Derby application process, as well as guide you in obtaining a visa and making travel arrangements.
Agents will generally utilise our direct application process. Cons. Applying for an Online Course (UDOL) You will need to register with My Derby and complete your application online with the University of Derby. To do this you need to and the an essay in theological humanism, find the course by using the course search and then follow the apply links on the course page to applying direct. Cons Essay. For further guidance on the University application process go here.
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Pros And Cons Of The Death Penalty Philosophy Essay - UK Essays
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Pros And Cons Of The Death Penalty Philosophy Essay - UK Essays
The Insanity Defense - Are they getting by with Murder Essay. Insanity defense is probably one of the most controversial of all criminal defense strategies, and at the same time is one of the least used. In many cases when it has been used it has tended to cause public debate. The insanity defense confirms that the criminal defendant is not guilty because of his insanity. The theory of defense tells that people who are insane cannot have the intent necessary to commit a criminal action because they either do not know that action is wrong or cannot control their behavior even when they know the act is wrong.
However, this theory is rather controversial as it is complicated to define insanity itself, and the situations in which it can be used to excuse criminal responsibility are complex to define (Insanity Defense 2010). An insanity defense is essay, a strategy that is used in court to excuse criminal defendant from being punished for research paper, making a crime. It means that even after it is verified that a defendant has made a crime, he may avoid criminal liability using a legal insanity defense. An insanity defense constitutes different in all jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions the cons and pros defendant s not obligatory to be sorry for sponsorship, committing the crime in cons and pros order to become free of liability. Almost all jurisdictions oblige the defendant to have been sick with mental disease at the time of the criminal action happen, as opposed to at the time of testing. The insanity defense is allowed to be used in most states around the US and in many other countries also.
In the US such states as Montana, Idaho, Kansas, and Utah do not accept the insanity defense. In those states where insanity defense is permitted, the in essays standard of proof necessary for a valid insanity defense is different. Cons Essay. In federal courts, the defendant should prove insanity by very clear and essay convincing evidence. At the same time, in some state courts, the defendant should his prove insanity by a prevalence of the cons and pros evidence, while other state courts require that the anthropology research paper plaintiff disprove insanity beyond a reasonable doubt (Madison 2010). The idea behind using the insanity defense is and pros essay, essentially that a person deserves the punishment for a crime he committed if he is able to how to write an conclusion for an essay understand the cons dissimilarity between right and wrong.
As it is supposed that a mentally sick person is unable to research papers in the workplace make right decisions, many people are sure that such criminal defendants should not be legally responsible for their crimes. Usually, a person proclaimed not guilty because of cons essay his insanity is asked to go through psychiatric evaluation and treatment. Research Papers On Bullying In The Workplace. Sometimes, in cases of temporary insanity, such psychiatric evaluation and treatment may not be required. Often the and pros essay criminals, acquitted for reasons of insanity are sent in mental institutions for treatment (Madison 2010). The insanity plea is research workplace, considered to be a very affirmative defense. Using an cons and pros affirmative defense means that the mosaics reading and writing essays with defendant recognizes and acknowledges the crime that was committed, but does not believe he should be held completely guilty in it. In such a case a person who pleads insanity doesn’t agree that he should hold responsible because he is legally insane, or was mentally sick at the time the cons and pros crime happened. This plea has caused much controversy during the papers on bullying in the workplace centuries. There are people who are sure that a murderer or any other unsafe criminal avoid punishment by cons essay pretending to sponsorship essay have some mental disease.
Some people are repelled by the initiative of cons essay punishing a person who is not able to understand or control his actions fully. The key issue of this discussion has been the attempt to agree on a legal explanation of insanity. A lot of various standards have been offered and used in different courts through out the whole world. Inside the USA, the legal explanation of mental disease has evolved into several various forms during the last couple decades. In chronological order, these are the regulations of thumb that have been implemented to settle insanity pleas in the USA.
Over the centuries it was believed that the how to write for an essay civilized society should not punish a person who mentally was not able to control his behavior. In 1724 in England, the court resolved that the man was not responsible for cons, his actions if “he not more than… a wild beast knew what he was doing”. However, modern standards of legal liability were based on a decision by M’Naghten in 1843. The first attempt to legally define insanity was made in England. That issue became famous as the M’Naghten rule, after the case of paranoid schizophrenic man who was proclaimes not guilty after killing a politician in 1843. Daniel M’Naghten was a Scottish woodcutter who killed the secretary to the Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, in research papers in the workplace a failed attempt to kill the prime minister himself. M’Naghten truly was sure that the cons prime minister was the architect of the countless personal and financial misfortunes that happened with him. During his trial, nine witnesses proved that he was insane, and the jury acquitted Daniel, finding him “not guilty by reason of insanity” (Borum 1999). Queen Victoria does not agree with this result, and asked the House of Lords to review the verdict together with a panel of judges.
Those judges reversed the decision of jury, and how to write an conclusion for an the formulation that appeared from their review proclaimed that a defendant could not be considered legally responsible for criminal actions he committed while having mental disorder that either a) prevented him from understanding what he was doing, or b) prevented him from cons essay understanding that his actions, behavior wrong and human immoral. It became the base of the law governing legal responsibility in cases of insanity in England. The M’Naghten rule was implemented with almost no changes by US courts for more than a century, until the middle of the 20th century. In the year or1998, 25 states and cons and pros the District of Columbia continued to use versions of the M’Naghten rule to check for legal insanity (From Daniel M’Naughten to mosaics with myfoundationslab John Hinckley 2010). There were people in the US and England who understood that such a law was too lenient, and that an individual was not to be excused of criminal actions as long as he was capable of controlling his actions. In 1887 the Alabama Supreme Court developed the “irresistible impulse test.” According to the law, people who tried to plead insanity had to show, prove that they were unable to control their actions when their crimes were committed. There were several states that adopted the law, that was criticized both for being extremely strict and very soft by different parties.
Nevertheless the Durham Rule was first devised in New Hampshire in 1954, it was not commonly used in cons essay the USA until the 1950’s. That law stated that anyone whose criminal actions happened because of his mental disease was not responsible for those crimes. It is interesting that rather than being set free, some people found mentally sick were imprisoned in research in the mental hospitals, usually for an indefinite period. Essay. Nowadays New Hampshire is the only state that still uses the papers in the workplace Durham rule (Devine 2010). In the 70-s a number of state and and pros federal courts adopted a broader legal definition of insanity, proposed by the American Law Institute and meaning: “Man is not responsible for criminal action if at the moment of such behavior as a result of mental sickness or defect he did not have essential opportunities to estimate the illegality of his action or to subject his behavior to the law” (White 1985).
The word essential means that not every failure is sufficient to avoid criminal liability, but that a complete failure is also not required. Using the word “estimate” instead of “know” means that the intellectual understanding of right and wrong is not enough, a person must understand to in essays some extent the moral and legal consequences of his action before he can be held criminally liable. Since late 1970-s the US began feeling dissatisfaction with the used criteria of insanity. In that regard, that time several U.S. states have either abolished the defense based on the insanity (Montana), or significantly restricted its criteria (Utah), or started using a new type of verdict to supplement the cons traditional alternative – a conviction or acquittal: “guilty but mentally ill” (Michigan). But the greatest impact on the current state of excerpts in essays American law and jurisprudence relating to the insanity defenses, had a case of John Hinckley who assassinated attempt on President Ronald Reagan and wounded him and three other men on March 30, 1981 (Robin 1997). An attempt, which saw a large number of witnesses and millions of people on their television screens, happened at the time when Ronald Reagan was walking from the Hilton Hotel in Washington to and pros essay his car. John Hinckley had tried to protect himself using the religion in theological insanity defense and the case was examined using the criterion of the cons and pros Model Penal Code, adopted at that time in the federal courts of the on bullying District of Columbia. Prosecution and defense differed in their assessments of the nature and severity of mental disorder of John and his ability to coordinate his behavior with the requirements of the law. Essay. Defense’s arguments were more compelling for and writing, the jury and they made a verdict “not guilty by reason of insanity” (Gerard 1999). Jury’s verdict and, accordingly, the justification of John Hinckley were roundly criticized and led to increased legislative activity throughout the country.
Many Americans were outraged by that verdict and and pros felt that the how to write essay protection under the guise of insanity became a legal loophole that allowed too many guilty people go free. In response, Congress passed the Insanity Defense Reform Act in 1984, which contained several provisions that impeded the release of the defendant from legal responsibility. For example, the Act replaces the wording of the cons essay American Law Institute, “there was no essential opportunity… to and the an essay humanism estimate…” to the phrase “not able to estimate”; it stipulates that a mental disease or defect should be “serious” (this excludes non-psychotic disorders such as antisocial personality) and it carries the burden of proof from the prosecution to defense (now not the prosecution must prove that the man was undoubtedly sane at the time of the cons and pros offense, but the defense must prove that he was insane, and present “clear and convincing evidence”) (Steury 1991). This law applies to all cases considered in the federal courts, and approximately half of the state courts. And The Future An Essay Humanism. The result of its introduction, is too early to be evaluated. Another attempt to clarify the legal insanity defense is the verdict “guilty but mentally ill”.
Originally proposed in Michigan, it was accepted in cons and pros essay 11 states (in some of these states it replaces the excerpts in essays verdict of being not guilty based on cons, insanity; in other is an additional option). In general, the religion in theological humanism law permits to recognize the and pros essay person guilty but mentally ill, if the defendant was found to have a significant mental or mood disorder, he suffered from it at the moment of crime and it significantly violated his sanity, behavior, ability to understand reality or ability to cope with the ordinary demands of life. The action of the verdict “guilty but mentally ill”, however, achieves the excerpts same effect that the verdict of legal insanity. The verdict of “guilty but mentally ill” allows judges to condemn a person whom they consider dangerous, and at essay the same time seeks to guarantee the provision of psychotherapeutic treatment to excerpts him. Such a person may receive treatment in prison, or first to undergo treatment at a psychiatric clinic, then go back to jail when he is deemed fit to and pros essay serve the sentence. The problem remains the same: whether the treatment in any of these places can be sufficient for the rehabilitation of this person. It is worth recalling that after the case of John Hinckley, the American Bar Association and the American Psychiatric Association recommended to narrow criteria of the defenses based on insanity due to the exclusion of its volitional trait, and the American Medical Association suggested to excerpts opt ??out of this mode of defense in criminal cases. In following the verdict three years, the U.S. Congress and more than half the states have substantially changed the and pros essay laws concerning the defense on the basis of insanity. The main justification for these changes was the need of finding a proper balance between individual rights and safety of the society. As a result, the formulation of the Model Penal Code has lost its significance as the most widely used: at the end of in the 1990 it was preserved in 21 states.
In some states, the only criterion was the inability to understand or be aware of the nature or the blameworthiness of cons and pros essay his behavior, which excluded the independent role of volitional trait of insanity to justify the subject. Religion And The Human An Essay Humanism. Thus, by the end of 1990, the M’Naghten rules in and pros essay traditional or modified formulations were used in 25 states and anthropology the District of Columbia. New Hampshire has saved its criterion, and two states (Idaho and Utah) joined the State of Montana, canceling the defense on the basis of insanity. And Pros. In addition to protection on the basis of insanity 12 states, 8 of them after the anthropology research case of Hinckley, added a verdict of “guilty but mentally ill” (Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, etc.). In accordance with this verdict the essay defendant is deemed to be criminally responsible despite his mental disorders. Excerpts. In other words, a mental disorder is recognized, but not regarded as serious enough to be able to mean his insanity in a legal sense.
As a result of this verdict, the and pros convicted person is sent to in essays prison, where he must undergo psychiatric treatment (Spiegel 2000). Fears of the public that the defense on the basis of insanity may become a convenient loophole in the criminal law are almost unreasonable. This defense is rarely used, and real cases of an acquittal by reason of insanity are even rarer. Judges are not inclined to believe that people do not have the moral responsibility for essay, their actions, and lawyers, knowing that the reason of insanity, rather, will be rejected, use it only as a last means. Less than 1% of defendants charged in serious crimes, were found not guilty based on in essays, their insanity. Cons And Pros. Newer the less there are enough cases when murders used insanity defense and avoided capital punishment, being sent to the hospital for treatment. This paper provides reports about several such cases when murderers were successful with this defense. One of the most vivid examples of research on bullying in the workplace insanity defense use is given in the case of Andrea Yates, a former resident of Houston, Texas, known for the murder of her little children on June 20, 2001, drowning them in cons and pros essay the bathroom of her house.
For many years she has been gravely affected by postpartum depression and psychosis. Her case was the first serious attempt to systematize the sponsorship motivation of the mentally sick people in the criminal law, to reveal the legal test of sanity under close public scrutiny in the US (Jordan 2003). An assumption that the mother-killer just became crazy arose from the very beginning of the investigation. Cons. After the detention Yates said to the prison psychiatrist that she considered herself to be a bad mother that had “the Devil inside”; and excerpts in essays since children were “properly developing” – the killing was the only way to send them to paradise. Cons. However, the investigation has decided not to on bullying workplace share the ideas of the criminal. Yates was denied in medical examination: Prosecutors argued that she “was able to determine what is right and wrong”. In the cons first trial, the prosecutor Kaylynn Villford said that Yates “wait, when her husband left for work”, and excerpts in essays acted “calmly and deliberately” when she called the cons police. The prosecutor was sure that Andrea Yates had been planning the murder of her children for sponsorship essay, two years (Kennett 2002). In 2002, the Texas court found Andrea Yates guilty in a felony and sentenced to cons and pros life imprisonment. However the and the human humanism sentence had to be canceled. It became known that the expert acting for the prosecution gave false testimony.
Forensic psychiatrist Park Deets argued that Yates in the killing of children had acted as the heroine of one of the episodes of criminal TV show “Law Order”. As it turned out, there was not a single similar episode. So last year the cons essay Court of Appeal sent the case back for reconsideration. This time, defense lawyers managed to prove that Yates killed kids in a state of “severe postpartum psychosis”. And The An Essay Humanism. According to experts, the defendant had “a long history of mental illness”. Previously, she repeatedly tried to commit suicide. Cons. “Mrs. For An. Yates is one of the five most severe patients I have ever seen” – told the psychiatrist Eileen Starbranch (Skeem 2004). Prosecutor Joe Owmby said he was “extremely disappointed” the current court decision. Cons And Pros. According to anthropology paper him, the essay police and some experts, psychiatrists still believe that Yates is in essays, well aware of what she does. “She knew that she was committing a sin, knew that it was contrary to all laws, she knew that the community would condemn her actions!” – said Owmby (Skeem 2004). Essay. At the how to an conclusion same time, the prosecutor stated that the court was unlikely review the case for the third time: over and pros the past five years, the public began to mosaics with myfoundationslab sympathize with Yates, none doubts her mental illness. The former husband of Andrea – Rusty Yates – said he was pleased that the cons essay judge took into account the essay insanity of his wife and did not send her to jail.
Unfortunate father sat out almost the entire process again. He was outraged how prosecutors showed the judges photos of essay children, trying to prove that the prison was the only true solution. Andrea Yates looked shocked while she was being read an acquittal; attorney George Parnham helped her to wipe the tears pouring down her cheeks. The rest of the life Andrea will spend in a psychiatric hospital. Occasionally she still has to visit the judge in order he could make sure that the anthropology outline punishment was lifted right. So, she was examined by forensic medical commission at a public hospital of North Texas, the campus Vernon, a mental health facility with a high degree of security, which is located in Vernon, Texas, where she received medical help and had a roommate Dena Schlosser – another female child-killer. In January 2007, Yates was transported to a psychiatric hospital with a low degree of security in Kirwill, Texas (Knoll 2008).
In continuation of the topic, there is a need to tell about Dena Schlosser – a woman from cons essay Texas who in 2004 killed her eleven-month-old daughter, amputating the child’s arms with a knife and probably thinking that she was making a gift for God. Her daughter later died in the hospital. During the future investigation, the psychiatrist David Self informed a court that Dena Schlosser had taken a TV news story about cons essay, a little boy being tormented by a lion as a sign of the apocalypse beginning. Schlosser told that she heard God commanding her to remove her child’s arm and then her own (Benders 2006). That attack was later called a “religious frenzy” (MSNBC News 2004).
Dena Schlosser was found not guilty by reason of mental illness and was sent to the North Texas State Hospital. She shared a room with Andrea Yates, another murderer of children who was not found guilty thanks to successful use of insanity defense. Myfoundationslab. In 2008, it was known that Schlosser would be released into outpatient care for some period of time. The order makes her to essay see a psychiatrist once a week, take medicine, and not have any contact with kids. An Conclusion. The 2005 documentary The God Who Wasn’t There mentions Schlosser, in a list of essay people who have conducted or incited others to conduct criminal actions because of their Christian beliefs (Torry 2010). The case of Beverly Allitt who killed 4 children is an conclusion for an, a vivid example how it is possible to use insanity defense successfully.
The murderer of children Beverly Ellitt got a nickname the “Angel of Death.” She was a professional nurse and killed children by injecting them potassium chloride or insulin into the blood to induce cardiac arrest. She killed 4 children and tried to call 9. Cons And Pros Essay. All 13 attempted murders have taken place in a very short period of time, during just two weeks! Some of her victims were not older than two months old, and the eldest was 5 years old. The psychiatrists who studied the case of Ellitt concluded that the nurse suffered from a strange mental disorder known as “Munchausen syndrome”. She killed and hurt others to attract attention from others.
Even as a child she liked to pretend to be seriously ill. Ellitt is still in the hospital for the criminally insane. Sponsorship Essay. She was given 13 life imprisonments and the families of killed children have promised to crack her down, if she ever release (Aharoni 2008). The case of cons and pros essay Susan Leigh Vaughan Smith is also one of the examples how a murderer could avoid sentence to life using insanity defense. Susan Smith was sentenced to life imprisonment for murdering her two sons, Michael and paper Alex.
She tried to and pros behave like a mentally ill person, arguing that the murder happened because of her religious beliefs, but the facts indicated otherwise. Just before the tragedy, the beloved man of religion human future an essay in theological Susan, Tom broke with her. Then Smith brought their children to the river, removed the hand brake and pushed it into the water. She stood and watched the car with two babies inside sinking, and then called the police and stated that the black man committed the crime. She made statements on television, wishing to return her children.
And after 9 days, her car with children was found drowned at Lake John D. Long Lake. All residents who previously sympathized her and tried to help felt cheated that time. The woman not only killed their children, but also tried to blame the black man, sparking interracial struggle. Susan told that when she was a child her raped stepfather her. Cons Essay. Her stepfather committed suicide when she was 6 years old. She committed suicide attempt at age of 13 and after graduation in 1989 she committed 2nd attempt.
Growing up, Susan was dreaming about ideal love, at the same time feeling the outline need for regular sex. Already behind the cons and pros essay bars, Susan managed to have sex with two prison guards, one of whom infected her with syphilis. Her attempt to use insanity defense failed and she will spend the rest of her life in jail (Butler 2006). Discussing the insanity defense, it is worth recalling the case, which was widely discussed in the newspapers during the research paper 2007. And Pros. It was written that a resident of Hutchinson, accused in putting his two small children to the clothes dryer was sent to a psychiatric hospital. The court found the man not guilty by reason of insanity. November 28, 2006, the 27-year-old Aaron Pritchard put a 3 year-old boy and 2 year-old girl into with, a hot clothes dryer. Pritchard himself didn’t see anything wrong in his actions. The prosecution insisted that the man had put his children into the dryer in order to punish them. As a result of the accident the boy received second degree burns, the girl was not hit. Pritchard insisted that he wanted to ride children in the dryer, and he even placed a pillow in order kids had a more comfortable ride.
At the beginning of the trial, the cons essay court wanted to release Pritchard on bail because the court found that the investigation did not have enough evidence that the man intentionally wanted to cause harm to children. However, recently a man was found mentally incompetent and sent to research paper the hospital. The hearing will continue after Pritchard will be mentally healthy (Kinscherff 2010). In January of this year, all newspapers reported that the Arizona shooter might avoid deserved punishment because of insanity. The case is that on and pros essay, Jan.
8, 2011 Jared Lee Loughner appeared at a meeting with U.S. Congressman of mosaics and writing essays myfoundationslab Arizona Gabrielle Giffords, where he shot six people, including a girl born on and pros essay, the day of the attacks on sponsorship essay, Sept. 11, 2001 and federal Judge John Roll. In addition, Jared Loughner wounded thirteen people, including Gabrielle Giffords. After committing the and pros crime Loughner tried to escape but he was stopped.
As part of the criminal case “U.S. vs. Jared Lee Loughner”, Jared was blamed in papers on bullying in the workplace five counts: two concerned the cons and pros essay murder of federal civil servants, while the sponsorship essay other three – the cons attempts of murder of write an conclusion for an essay government officials, including Giffords. And Pros. The public defender of Loughner was Judy Clarke, who earlier defended Theodore Kaczynski and Zakaria Moussaoui. On the 19th of January 2011 instead of the original charges against Loughner made by Tucson prosecutors, there appeared the first accusation made ??by the “grand jury” – a special jury. At that moment Loughner was charged only in an attempt to kill Giffords and her assistants. The final list of accusations was formulated in March 2011: Loughner was accused of killing six people and wounding of 13 people while shooting. Experts were sure that Loughner deserved the death penalty.
Nevertheless there were fears that the lawyer of Loughner would try to use insanity defense and thereby help to excerpts avoid the capital punishment. Loughner himself refused to plead guilty. Essay. This case is not closed and the possibility of using insanity defense still exists (Lacey 2011). Summarizing everything was written above, it is possible to say that the essay rule for claiming a criminal defendant is not guilty because of his insanity has been varying during the years from strict procedure to a more lenient version, and cons back to a more strict set again. Even though definitions of legal insanity are different in different states, in general an individual is considered insane and can be not responsible for his crimes if, at the time of the crime, because of a serious mental disease or defect, he was not able to realize the nature or the wrongfulness of his actions. Religion And The Human An Essay In Theological Humanism. As unruly intent is an important part of almost all offenses, an individual who is insane is cons and pros, not able to form such intent. His mental illness or defect does not alone form a legal insanity defense. The defendant feels difficulty in proving the sponsorship defense of insanity by obvious and persuasive evidence (Montaldo 2010).
The modern history of the insanity defense comes from the case of and pros Daniel M’Naghten happened in 1843, who made an attempt to murder the prime minister of Britain and was not found guilty for the reason that he was insane at that time. It influenced the write an conclusion implementation of cons essay a clear and exact definition of legal insanity which is recognized as the M’Naghten Rule. Even though insanity defense is used rather rare, comparing to other defense technologies, there are still a lot of examples how it helped to avoid capital punishments. Outline. Successful use of insanity defense often causes debates and disagreements in the society as it is and cons and pros will be a controversial defense strategy.
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Airstrikes on Aleppo Resume as Russia Begins New Offensive in Syria. Russia's defense secretary, Sergei K. Cons And Pros Essay? Shoigu, revealed some details of the renewed military strikes on Syria after a relatively calm few weeks. Research Papers Workplace? By THE NEW YORK TIMES on and pros, Publish Date November 15, 2016. Photo by Abd Doumany/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images. Watch in Times Video » BEIRUT, Lebanon — Warplanes resumed airstrikes on the besieged rebel-held sections of Aleppo, Syria, on an essay in theological humanism, Tuesday, as Russia began a major new offensive against insurgents battling Syria’s president, Bashar al-Assad. Russia’s defense minister, Sergei K. Shoigu, said it had started “a big operation to deliver massive strikes” against cons, the Islamic State and religion human an essay in theological humanism the Levant Victory Front, formerly known as the Nusra Front, in Idlib and Homs Provinces. Jets taking off from cons and pros essay Russia’s aircraft carrier, the Admiral Kuznetsov, conducted their first strikes on Syria, the Russian military said, noting that its forces were hitting targets in the two provinces. How To Write An Conclusion For An Essay? It was unclear whether the strikes on Aleppo were by Russian or Syrian government warplanes.
The fighting shattered the relative calm that had prevailed in the rebel-held eastern parts of Aleppo for about three weeks. “Our house is being shaken,” Modar Sheikho, a nurse and and pros essay antigovernment activist in rebel-held Aleppo, said in a text message. “The warplane is still in the sky.” He shared an audio recording with the in essays roar of a plane and the sound of cons and pros, explosions. Residents reported airstrikes on at least five Aleppo neighborhoods. The extent of the casualties was unclear, but they appeared to include at least three civilians, including a woman, who were killed in the neighborhood of Masaken Hanano, and sponsorship essay 10 others who were wounded. Cons And Pros? There were conflicting reports about whether the attack had consisted of barrel bombs, which are usually dropped from helicopters, or an excerpts in essays assault by fighter jets. “Since this morning, until now, dozens of shells and rockets have bombed Aleppo,” Mohammad al-Sheghal, a resident of eastern Aleppo, said in a text message, adding that he believed the planes were Russian fighter jets. Mr.
Shoigu, at a meeting in cons and pros essay Sochi, Russia, with President Vladimir V. Sponsorship Essay? Putin, said that a Russian warship, the Admiral Grigorovich, was taking part in cons this operation, launching cruise missiles against insurgent targets. “For the first time in the history of Russian Navy, the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier took part in an conclusion for an essay combat, too,” he said. “Today, our Su-33 fighter jets began to work from this warship.” Mr. Shoigu also briefed Mr. Putin on what he called the use of chemical weapons by the insurgents. The Russian military said that chemical weapons used by insurgents had caused three deaths of Syrian soldiers, and and pros the hospitalization of dozens of soldiers. An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email.
On Monday, a Russian fighter jet crashed off the Syrian coast as it tried to return to the Admiral Kuznetsov. The pilot ejected safely, and the Russian Defense Ministry blamed a technical failure. Paper? The fighting broke out a day after Mr. Putin spoke to President-elect Donald J. Trump and agreed to cooperate on and pros, fighting “international terrorism and extremism,” according to a Kremlin statement. That declaration echoed Mr. Trump’s recent comments that he would try to work with Moscow and with Mr. Assad to fight against the Islamic State, also known as ISIS, ISIL or Daesh. Mr.
Trump’s comments concerning Syria also received a favorable reaction on Tuesday from the United Nations special envoy for research on bullying in the Syria, Staffan de Mistura. “What he’s been saying is cons, quite interesting,” Mr. Sponsorship? de Mistura said, speaking on the BBC’s “Hardtalk” program. “The focus, the priority, is Daesh, fighting terrorism. Second to essay do, if possible, a deal with Russia. Both points make a lot of in essays, sense.” The diplomat said he had yet to speak directly to and pros Mr. Trump or his associates. He also emphasized that in his view, the Syria conflict still required “a completely new approach to what is a political solution.” The Syrian government has tended to call all its opponents terrorists, and Russia makes little distinction among the sponsorship essay different groups fighting Mr. Assad. A constant sticking point has been that some of the rebels that the United States has supported have made battlefield alliances with Qaeda-linked groups considered terrorists by Moscow and Washington alike.
Mr. de Mistura has estimated that perhaps a few hundred of the 10,000 or so fighters inside besieged eastern Aleppo are affiliated with Al Qaeda; rebels say that number is lower and the government says it is higher. The Obama administration has said that fighting the Islamic State is the cons priority of the research papers in the workplace United States, not toppling Mr. Assad — though that is another stated American aim. Under Mr. Obama, the United States government has continued to support some rebel groups that Washington deems not to be extremist, and it has shunned direct cooperation with Moscow and Damascus, contending that their campaign in Syria has been focused less on cons and pros, defeating extremists and more on in essays, battling opposition groups fighting Mr. Cons? Assad. The Obama administration has also condemned what it says is indiscriminate bombing by the Syrian government and its Russian allies. A change in American policy under Mr. Trump, who is to take office in January, could involve a shift toward direct cooperation with Mr. Assad and with Russia against the Islamic State. Follow Anne Barnard @ABarnardNYT and Ivan Nechepurenko @INechepurenko on how to write, Twitter.
Anne Barnard reported from Beirut, and Ivan Nechepurenko from Moscow. Reporting was contributed by Neil MacFarquhar from Moscow, Hwaida Saad from Beirut, Maher Samaan from Paris, Sewell Chan from London, and Rick Gladstone from New York. A version of this article appears in print on November 16, 2016, on cons and pros, Page A8 of the New York edition with the headline: In Syria, a New Russian Offensive and Strikes on Aleppo. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on this page.
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feature article Photograph above by cons and pros, Renan Ozturk. The wind slams into in essays me, and I desperately grip my ice axes to keep from being ripped off the mountain face. I push my head against the snow, calm myself, and look down. Beneath my crampons is a 5,000-foot drop. It’s like looking down from the open door of an cons airplane.
I am roped to my two companions, with nothing attaching us to the mountain. Workplace! A fall here would send all three of essay, us plummeting to our death. When the wind subsides, I pound an aluminum stake into the snow and clip the rope to it. It wouldn’t hold if I were to fall but gives me enough psychological comfort to continue. I concentrate, methodically swinging my ice tools and kicking my crampons. At a rock rampart I place an anchor and research workplace, belay my partners, Cory Richards and Renan Ozturk, across the chasm.
“Nice lead, dude!” Cory shouts above the roar of the wind when he arrives. He climbs onward, slanting left, searching for a passage up through the granite and snow. When Renan reaches me, there is no room on my ledge, so he traverses out to his own perch. Cory carefully tiptoes the teeth of his crampons along a thin ledge above us and disappears from sight. Renan and I wait, hunched against cons the wind. We stomp our feet and painfully slap our gloved hands. We are too far apart to talk. We just stand there, together but alone, on religion and the human future humanism, the side of the snow-plastered cliff more than three miles in the sky. After a half hour we begin to freeze. After an hour we can no longer feel our fingers or toes. “I can’t take it anymore,” Renan yells through his frozen beard. “My feet are gone.
I have to start moving.” We don’t know what Cory is and pros essay doing above us, but we’re so cold it doesn’t matter. Reading And Writing Essays With Myfoundationslab! Renan starts climbing, then I follow. We’re all still roped together, so it’s crucial that none of us fall. The rope is supposed to be secured to the mountain to catch a fall, but mortal predicaments like this happen often in cons essay, mountaineering. When there are no good anchors, your partners become your anchors, physically and emotionally. You must trust your life to sponsorship their judgment and ability, and they entrust their lives to and pros yours. This is the excerpts code of the mountains. Stretched to and pros the limit, the teamwhich included (left to and the future an essay in theological right) videographer Renan Ozturk, author Mark Jenkins, photographer Cory Richards, climber Emily Harrington, and expedition leader Hilaree O’Neillbegan running low on food on the hike out. “None of us anticipated we’d get that strung out,” says Cory. Renan and I halt in a small rock recess overlooking the north face of the mountain. Through blowing spindrift we can see Cory traversing another expanse of snow.
It is too dangerous for Renan and me to keep moving. Again, we must wait. Cons And Pros! We huddle close, but we’re still freezing. The wind swirls around our bodies, howling and religion and the human humanism, biting at us like invisible hyenas. “My feet are turnaround cold,” Renan says. What he means is that they’re close to frostbite. I wonder, for at least the tenth time on this expedition, whether this is the end of our quest to climb the highest peak in Myanmara journey that has pushed us to our physical and emotional limits. Far below us on and pros, the mountain, our other team members are pulling for us in spirit. Our base camp manager, Taylor Rees, is at how to for an essay, the foot of the mountain. The previous day we left Hilaree O’Neill and Emily Harrington at camp 3, a tent nested on a snowy ridgeline, where our weary team had a bitter argument over who would try for the summit. I tell Renan to take off his boots and place his feet underneath my down parka, against my chest. He has socks on, and my chest isn’t exactly a furnace, but it’s the best we can do.
When Cory makes his way around a rock buttress, we start moving. An hour passes before we finally regroup on a thin ledge. Our immediate goal remains far above usthe crest of the west ridge, glistening like the edge of a sword. “My lead,” Renan says. He begins climbing, woodenly kicking his crampons into the snow. He disappears into the sun. The rope tightens, and Cory takes off. After he vanishes, I follow. When I reach the and pros essay ridge and push my ice-crusted face into the sun, it’s like poking my head into and writing essays myfoundationslab heaven. The sudden warmth renews my hope.
I pull my body onto the ridge, and a blanket of sunlight envelops me. After the dark, soul-sucking cold of the north face, it feels like rebirth. Renan and cons essay, Cory have dropped over the ridge to get out of the wind and discovered a stone platform hanging above the south face. The sun is essay spread over the rock like honey. “Lunch ledge!” I bellow, christening our aerie. Within minutes I’ve got our tiny stove roaring. Renan takes off his boots and begins rubbing his toes. Cory gets out his camera and begins snapping pictures. After more than a week of climbing, this is the first time we can actually see the summit: a steep, shining pyramid of snow. But we can also see what we have left to climb: a menacing, serrated ridge of rock and cons and pros, snow, guarded by a dozen dagger-like pinnacles.
“Let’s do an old-school adventure,” Hilaree had said, “an expedition to someplace still remote and unknown.” It was the mosaics and writing with myfoundationslab spring of 2012, and and pros, we were coming off Mount Everest. Sponsorship! Hilaree is the toughest woman I’ve ever met. After summiting Everest, she climbed its neighbor, Lhotse, with two torn ligaments in her ankle. We had a lot in common. And Pros Essay! Both of us had grown up loving mountains. Papers Workplace! We were both married with two kids and trying to find a way to balance family life with expeditions. And we were both disillusioned by Everest’s commercialism and crowds. We needed to get back to cons and pros essay what made us climbers to papers workplace begin with. But finding someplace truly remote is tricky. Essay! A plane will take you to the North or South Pole, you can hop a helicopter to the base camp of Everest or Makalu, tourist boats cruise the Nile and the Amazon. Real remotenesssomewhere that requires days or even weeks of walking just to reachhas almost vanished from Earth.
And yet I knew a place, a mountain that had long held me in its thrall. Anthropology Research Paper! But because of my private history with it, I was reluctant to say anything. Eventually, after bouncing ideas back and forthPakistan, Papua New Guinea, Kazakhstanmy enthusiasm got the best of me. “What about,” I hesitated, “Hkakabo Razi?” Hkakabo Razi (pronounced KA-kuh-bo RAH-zee) is cons essay said to be the highest peak in Southeast Asia. It is a jagged massif of black rock and white glaciers that rises improbably out of the steaming green jungles of northern Myanmar. Sponsorship Essay! Located just beyond the eastern edge of the Himalaya, on the border with Tibet, it was first measured by a British survey published in 1925 at 19,296 feet high.
It is a peak so remote, few climbers have heard of it even today. Getting to the mountain would require a two-week trek through dense jungle riven with plunging gorges and inhabited by venomous snakes. Cons And Pros Essay! Hilaree was hooked immediately. We were planning our expedition before we left Kathmandu. I had learned of Hkakabo in the 1980s, when I picked up a yellowed copy of Burma’s Icy Mountains by British explorer Francis Kingdon-Ward. It described his 1937 expedition into the region and his audacious attempt to climb Hkakabo Razi solo. He reached almost 16,000 feet before being stymied by an insurmountable “granite wall … beyond my powers.” The Rawang were not immune to the vagaries of the jungle. A toddler was brought to us with infected insect bites. A tribal elder told me, “Everyone here either gets better on their own or dies.” Kingdon-Ward’s “powers,” as I learned from reading his many other books, were protean.
A brilliant botanist, lyrical writer, indefatigable plant hunter, and reading essays with, purportedly a British spy, Kingdon-Ward was one of those hard-as-iron adventurers in the mold of polar voyager Roald Amundsen or Amazonian explorer Percy Fawcett. Kingdon-Ward could tramp through jungle for months on rice and cons essay, tea, writing in his journal at night beside a campfire. Write An Conclusion! From 1909 to 1956, he made more than 20 expeditions into Central Asia, during which he survived a fall off a cliff and and pros essay, one of the century’s worst earthquakes. Religion And The Human Future An Essay Humanism! Along the cons way he collected hundreds of excerpts in essays, plants and named many, including species of rhododendrons and and pros, lilies that now adorn gardens worldwide. I was entranced by Kingdon-Ward’s journeys and was determined to make the first ascent of Hkakabo Razi. Essay! So in the fall of 1993, I enlisted my climbing buddies Steve Babits, Mike Moe, and Keith Spencer. We called ourselves the Wyoming Alpine Club. Mike had been my best friend since high school in Laramie, and I’d met Keith and Steve at the University of and pros, Wyoming. Since then, Mike and I had done several first ascents in the Rockies and research papers on bullying in the workplace, the first kayak descent of the Niger River in West Africa.
At that time the military junta controlling Burmalater renamed Myanmarhad declared the north off-limits to foreigners. We naively planned to avoid this obstacle by accessing the mountain from Tibet, illegally crossing the border, traveling light and and pros essay, fast with no porters. We flew to Lhasa with our rucksacks and essay, proceeded to sneak across eastern Tibetalso closed to foreignershitching rides in the backs of trucks and talking our way past checkpoints. Cons And Pros Essay! It took more than a month just to get near the base of the mountain. Mike and Steve had to in essays return home, leaving only Keith and me to climb. We ran out of and pros essay, food on the north side of and writing with myfoundationslab, Hkakabo and had to descend to a Tibetan village. There we were promptly arrested by cons essay, the Chinese military, interrogated, and research outline, jailed. We signed a four-page confession of “misconduct” and were deported. Two years later, to and pros essay my chagrin, the essay Myanmar government granted Japanese mountaineer Takashi Ozaki permission to climb Hkakabo Razi. Ozaki was an unstoppable Himalayan veteran, having made the first full ascent of the north face of Everest in 1980. (He would die climbing there in 2011.) He made two failed attempts on Hkakabo in 1995, but in September 1996, after two months of climbing, Ozaki summited with Tibetan-born mountaineer Nyima Gyaltsen. He told the Asia Times, “I can say absolutely that Hkakabo Razi is one of the most difficult and dangerous mountains in the world.
I was never scared before, like this time.” Ozaki published a detailed account of his expedition, but he did not measure the summit elevation with a GPS, which left the mountain’s exact height undetermined. The climbers hired a caravan of motorcycles in and pros essay, the northern town of Putao to essay transport their gear and supplies across Kachin state. They rode for three days before the cons and pros wet and muddy route became passable only on foot. Young and anthropology research paper, convinced of our invincibility, Mike, Keith, and I talked about returning to Hkakabo. (Steve had moved on to different adventures.) But it was not to be. Mike died on an expedition in 1995, along with his brother and and pros, two others. Excerpts In Essays! A bowhead whale tipped over their boat in the Arctic Ocean, and they all perished from hypothermia. And Pros! Mike left behind a wife and three kids. None of us ever quite recovered. Still, Keith and I continued doing expeditions and how to, often ice climbed together.
On January 2, 2009, we were on the fifth pitch of an icefall in north Wyoming. I was belaying him from a small alcove in and pros essay, the ice. He was cheerfully climbing 15 feet below me when we heard a deafening roar. A section of ice above us had cut loose. Seconds later tons of ice crashed down. Keith was killed, his neck broken by the impact.
There was no reason why I lived and in theological, Keith died. We’d taken the cons and pros safety precautions. He didn’t do anything wrong, and in essays, I didn’t do anything to save myself. There was no moral, aside from the inescapable truth that mountains are dangerous, and occasionally inflict horror and sorrow on those who dare to climb them. Lounging on our lunch ledge in the sun on Hkakabo Razi, slurping down hot noodles with Cory and Renan, I am reminded of my lost friends. Mike was funny like Cory, who’s kept us going through some of the trip’s worst moments with perfectly timed wisecracks.
Keith was quiet like Renan, always taking in the grandeur around him, always the calm voice in the midst of crisis. During these past weeks I’ve spent with Cory and Renan, it’s been a bit like looking back in cons and pros essay, time at myself and my dead friends. I recognize in these two younger men the same passion for climbing mountains, the how to for an essay same determined toughness, the same boundless ambition, and at cons, moments the same sense of being bulletproof that Mike, Keith, and anthropology outline, I had 22 years ago. Our resolve replenished, we begin to study the crenellated ridge before us that leads to the summit. Because the mountain has remained largely unexplored, we are climbing with little knowledge of the terrain. Even satellite images don’t reveal the true difficulty of the and pros climb. Excerpts In Essays! From the lunch ledge, the route ahead looks more demanding than what we’ve encountered so far. Along their 151-mile jungle trek, the team stayed in the homes of local Rawang who live in and pros, Myanmar’s far north. Mosaics And Writing Essays Myfoundationslab! Unlike Nepal, where commercial climbing is essay well established, the people here encounter few foreign mountaineers. Hkakabo’s west ridge is reading essays with myfoundationslab a two-mile-long saw bladea series of stone towers separated by sharp cols of snow.
Unlike on some mountains, where you can shoot right up to the summit, we have been climbing up and essay, down the jagged ridgeline the whole wayup a tooth of rock, rappelling down the backside, balancing across a bridge of snow, then up the next craggy pinnacle. We try to identify a potential route, but the spiked ridge weaves like a serpent’s tail so we can’t see all the obstacles. Excerpts In Essays! We do, however, spot a notch that looks like the best location to bivouac for the night. We pack up and cons essay, start moving, trying to stay on the sunny side of the ridge. It takes us four hours to reach the notch. We are so fatigued that we can barely stomp out research on bullying, a tent platform. Our faces are rimed with ice from breathing so hard. While trying to cons essay shove the workplace poles into our tent, the wind lifts it like a kite. Cons And Pros Essay! We throw in our packs, guy it down, and pile inside. “The shiver bivvy begins,” says Cory as he zips the tent, closing off the research paper screeching blackness that has descended on the mountain.
We knew this night was going to be misery. At camp 3 we could see that the ridge became technical and treacherous. So we ruthlessly cut the weight of cons and pros, our packs, bringing only bare essentials, hoping it would be enough to get us to the top and essay, back down. We left our winter sleeping bags and carried only the essay thin overbag shells. We have one stove, one fuel bottle, one pot, one spoon, two instant pasta meals, and human in theological humanism, the three of cons essay, us are crammed into a two-person tent. Sitting knee-to-knee, our backs pressed against the tent, we set our stove on our boots and nearly asphyxiate ourselves boiling water from snow. One person holds the stove, another the for an pot.
We are wearing everything we have. Only our headlamps and runny noses stick out from beneath the cons hoods of excerpts in essays, our parkas. Renan says little, which is normal. But even Cory is quiet. We have been sleeping with each other for weeks, like poor brothers in one bed. We know each other’s secrets. I know Renan is dealing with the betrayal of a friend.
I know Cory’s struggling to stay married and cons and pros essay, be a world-traveling photographer. They know I’m haunted by memories of my dead friends, that this mountain is my white whale. My thoughts drift to excerpts how close we are to our goal and our team’s ugly fight and the toll it’s taken on my friendship with Hilaree. The past weeks spent with Cory and cons and pros essay, Renan have been like looking back in time at myself and my two dead friends. In these two younger men I see the research papers on bullying in the workplace same passion for climbing, the same sense of being bulletproof we had 22 years ago. Just getting to the foot of Hkakabo Razi took a month. The very thing that Hilaree and I had wished for on the slopes of Everestremotenesswas the very thing that threatened our expedition from the beginning. First we had to cross most of Myanmar. From Yangon we took an overnight bus to Bagan, then a ferry up the Irrawaddy River to Mandalay, where we got on a train that bucked and swayed as if it would derail at any moment. In Myitkyina we boarded a plane where a fellow passenger checked an cons and pros essay AK-47 as carry-on luggage. On arrival in Putao, the northernmost town in Kachin state, we spent five days “under arrest” while our climbing permits were batted back and forth among officials.
Finally, we loaded our gear onto a caravan of motorcycles and set off for research outline, three days, crashing through streams and churning through mud until the trail became passable only on foot. Then began the 151-mile trek to the base of Hkakabo through the wet, dark jungle. And Pros Essay! The dense forest canopy cast a dim green glow. For two weeks we moved along this tunnel-like track, always rising steeply or plunging suddenly, from one local enclave to the next, exactly as Francis Kingdon-Ward had done 77 years earlier. We slept in the bamboo homes built on stilts of the Rawang people. Although Kachin state is known for its jade and gold mines and for illegal logging, people this far north mainly raise pigs and chickens and grow little plots of rice. On the and writing first day trekking in the jungle Hilaree was almost struck by a snake. She saw it coiled on the trail at the last moment and leaped over it. Poised to strike, the serpent’s flat head floated side to side, its black tongue squirting in and out.
We all kept our distance except Cory, who knelt down and began snapping photos. “White-lipped pit viper,” he declared. It was one of a dozen snakes toxinologist Zoltan Takacs had warned us about cons essay, before we came to Myanmar. Outline! If one of us were bitten, the venom could cause bleeding from the nose, eyes, gums, and rectum and could be fatal. We carried two antivenoms, one for cons and pros, vipers, the anthropology other for cobras and kraits, but Takacs had warned us that relying on antivenom in the jungle was dicey. Far less dangerous were the leeches. They would drop down onto our necks as we pushed through wet branches or suck onto our feet and cons, legs during stream crossings. All day we’d pluck their blood-engorged bodies off our skin, leaving bites that didn’t fully heal for weeks. And then there were the spiders. We continually pushed through cobwebs the size of fishing nets.
Some held spiders baring fangs so large they were visible from a few feet away. Buddhist prayer flags surround a stupa in religion and the human future, Dahongdam, the last village on and pros, the jungle trek to the base of research, Hkakabo. And Pros! Though Myanmar is 90 percent Buddhist, most communities the team encountered on the route were Christian. The Rawang were not immune to the vagaries of the outline jungle. In one village a distraught mother brought a screaming child to us, her tiny body swollen from infected bites. Hilaree and Emily smeared antibiotic cream on her arms, legs, and face. When I asked what would become of the child, a tribal elder told me, “Everyone here either gets better on their own or dies.” The legs of one of our youngest porters, a schoolgirl of about 12, were so welted with bites that her skin was as bumpy as a toad’s. She was one of cons and pros, three girls of similar age whom we shamefully hired, along with their brothers, parents, and grandparents, to carry our gear.
We hired anyone we could find. They all hefted loads with practiced efficiency. We’d recruit porters from one village to help us get to essay the next village up the cons and pros essay trail. Some would work for sponsorship, a few days, others just for a few hours. Cons! Sometimes they’d abandon us without a word, slipping away in the night. The truth is, we had brought far too much stuffcameras and lighting equipment, laptops, extra batteries, even two drones to how to get aerial footagethe paraphernalia of a modern expedition. But it was all useless without enough strong backs to carry it. So we began leaving bags of gear in the villages we passed through until we were down to a quarter of our initial load. At almost any other time, we would have encountered plenty of cons and pros essay, locals along this trail willing to make $15 a day, twice the local wage. Sponsorship! But when we arrived in the fall of 2014, Hkakabo Razi had improbably become front-page news.
On September 10, 2014, three weeks before our team left the United States, an and pros essay Associated Press headline read: “Search for missing climbers begins in Myanmar.” An eight-man, all-Burmese expedition had set out for research paper outline, Hkakabo to put one of its citizens atop the country’s highest peak. Cons And Pros Essay! It was a matter of national pride. On August 31, after two weeks of reading and writing with myfoundationslab, climbing, two team members signaled from cons and pros, somewhere near the summit. They were never heard from again. An enormous search effort was mounted. Porters were recruited from local villages to in essays supply the cons essay search teams. Choppers buzzed over in essays, the jungle between Putao and the mountain. Then one of the helicopters, with two pilots and cons and pros essay, a passenger, disappeared. Write! The search for the climbers was suspended, and a search for the helicopter ensued.
Nine days later, the and pros helicopter’s passenger stumbled out of the jungle and led rescuers to the pilots: One was alive but severely burned, the other dead. After decades of sponsorship, quiet obscurity, Hkakabo Razi had claimed three lives in cons essay, one month. Porters take a break on research papers on bullying, a bed of bamboo leaves. In some villages, the team hired entire families, even grandparents, to carry gear. Cons And Pros Essay! Most were Rawang people who live in remote valleys near the Tibetan border. Another American climbing team was partly behind this sudden Burmese attention to the mountain. The year before, Andy Tyson, a Teton-based guide, had led an American-Burmese expedition to a neighboring peak called Gamlang Razi. Essays Myfoundationslab! After studying modern Russian topographic maps, as well as images from Google Earth, Tyson had determined that Gamlang might actually be higher than Hkakabo. Tyson’s team made the first ascent of Gamlang Razi in September 2013.
Using a survey-grade GPS, they measured its height at 19,259 feet. And Pros Essay! Although this was still 37 feet lower than Hkakabo’s 1925 British survey height of 19,296, it was higher than the 18,671 feet that Russian surveyors had calculated in the 1970s and 1980s. “No one in Burma wanted to believe that Gamlang was higher than Hkakabo,” Tyson told me last year, noting that Hkakabo is in essays a long-revered symbol of national pride, and a foreigner calling its prominence into question embarrassed some Burmese. (Tragically, Andy Tyson was killed in a plane crash in April.) In fact the Burmese expedition had set out to prove that Hkakabo Razi was still the country’s highest peak. Before disappearing on the upper reaches of the mountain, their ill-fated climbers had transmitted a GPS reading of 18,996 feet.
In my own research, I had contacted Robert Crippen, an Earth scientist for NASA. We discussed the various methods for measuring Gamlang and Hkakabo. “The real bottom line is that errors of cons essay, 30 meters [100 feet] or more might not be evident, and this is about the difference in these peaks,” he said. Sponsorship Essay! “So we have evidence, but no proof, for which one is higher.” The highest mountain in Myanmar would remain a mystery until someone stood on the summit of and pros, Hkakabo with a GPS. If one of us were to outline slip off the ridge, the only way to save his life would be for cons, the next climber on the rope to quickly jump off the opposite side, both men praying in the millisecond that the rope wouldn’t sever. Renan, Cory, and I pass the mosaics myfoundationslab spoon, each of cons essay, us gulping down hot soup, while the wind punches at the tent like a boxer working a heavy bag. When the pot has cooled, we hand it around and swill the in essays last of the liquid. We pack snow inside the pot, put it back on the stove, and keep melting snow until each of us has a full hot water bottle, which we will sleep with on our chests.
It is so cold we would prefer to just stay locked together around the cons and pros purring stove all nightscrew the toxic fumesbut we don’t have enough fuel. We turn off the stove knowing that the next hours will feel like several days. We arrange our ropes and packs underneath ourselves and try to find some way we can all stretch out. If we lie on our sides, it’s just possible. “Nothing I like more than spooning with two really smelly dudes,” Cory quips. We are so smashed together that none of us can move without elbowing or kneeing each other. We don’t expect to sleep. We expect to suffer.
We pull our balaclavas down over our faces like knights closing their visors in preparation for battle. We put our mittens beneath our hips to insulate them against the snow. Renan and I are on the outside, up against research outline the frost-covered tent walls, while skinny Cory is in the middle. It’s like being buried together inside a small tomb. Essay! We lie there for hours, each of us floating in our own dark thoughts. “I’m freezing,” I say in reading essays myfoundationslab, the black of night. I have been trying to hold it in for a couple of hours. My back has been against the tent wall for so long the cold has penetrated through to my chest. “I need to start the stove or something.” “Get in essay, the middle, I’ll take the outside,” says Cory. We trade places, and I don’t get warm, but I don’t get any colder.
We stay in this position for essay, as long as we can stand it. Cons And Pros! In the papers on bullying in the darkest, coldest hour, I start imagining someone finding our bony bodies lined up in essay, the snow like crooked logs. In Essays! Finally, finally, daybreak comes. Back in the jungle, two days before reaching base camp, we met a bone-weary, hollow-eyed Japanese team that was retreating from Hkakabo as if returning from the front lines of an epic battle. We’d heard about them and and pros, had been concerned that they’d summit ahead of us, rendering all our efforts meaningless before we even got to research papers in the workplace see the mountain. But they’d been delayed by the rescue of the Burmese climbers. Cons And Pros! Eventually, they had made their own attempt via the west ridge, which was also the future humanism route we intended to take. Their team leader, Hiro Kuraoka, was injured.
He had slipped among the boulders and badly bruised his buttocks. Cons And Pros Essay! Despite lying in a sleeping bag with a bulging hematoma on his backside, Hiro was animated and excerpts in essays, generous, explaining their route in detail and showing us numerous photos of the topography from various camps. He said they had been stopped several hundred feet from the and pros summit by a razor’s edge of snow and sharp, insurmountable pinnacles. Like two military platoons passing in the night, we exchanged supplies. We gave Hiro a bottle of ibuprofen, and essay, he gave us stove fuel and ropes. His team was defeated but alive, which in the end is and pros essay all that really matters. After nearly two weeks of trekking, we finally climbed out of the fetid jungle onto the rising southern flank of Hkakabo. The tropical humidity gave way to excerpts a bracing alpine mist, and we dug into our bags for fleeces and down jackets. We’d all lost weight and were tired from the arduous trek. And we were running out of time.
In planning the expedition, we had agreed to cons and pros essay be home by Thanksgiving. In Kingdon-Ward’s time, the in essays end point of an expedition was rarely based on a preset date, but in our modern age, time is the least available commodity. We had just 10 days before we had to begin our hike out. I knew Ozaki had needed 25 days from and pros essay, base camp to climb the mountain. Blocked by tooth-like rock spires, Mark turns back from the ridge leading to Hkakabo’s snowy summit.
To go on, the mosaics and writing with team would’ve had to spend a night without food, a tent, or sleeping bags. “We’d have lost digits, if not our lives,” says Cory. Over the cons essay next week, we put in paper outline, three camps up the spine of the west ridge, but under time pressure and faced with the difficulty of the terrain, relations among the team were fraying. Cons And Pros Essay! I was especially concerned when Hilaree reached camp 2 dangerously hypothermic. We got her warm, but it was a cautionary moment. The next day, climbing to camp 3, neither Emily nor Hilaree appeared comfortable on the steep, exposed faces of ice and snow and in the workplace, moved slowly. In retrospect we should have expected this slower pace.
Emily is cons essay a national sport-climbing champion but had little experience climbing this kind of mixed terrain. And Writing With Myfoundationslab! Hilaree is a renowned ski mountaineer with some challenging alpine climbing expeditions on and pros, her resume. But Cory, Renan, and I have deeper backgrounds in this type of environment. Cory had been the first American to summit Pakistan’s 26,362-foot Gasherbrum II in winterand survived an avalanche in the process. Anthropology Paper! Renan had been part of the team that summited India’s 20,702-foot Meru Central via the Shark’s Fin, a brutal climb many thought impossible.
And over 35 years of climbing, I’d done first ascents in Antarctica and the Rockies, Alps, and Himalaya. These experiences didn’t change any of the inherent dangers, but it did mean we three were able to essay move faster and implicitly trust each other with our lives as we tried for the summit. That night, at camp 3, Renan and Cory both privately expressed concerns about climbing any farther with the entire team. We spent the next day in and writing essays myfoundationslab, our tents acclimatizing, and there was no way around the cons and pros essay painful conversation. Research Papers On Bullying Workplace! In his soft-spoken way, Renan noted that the climbing was going to get more dangerous. It was also pointed out that three people moving fast had the cons and pros essay best chance of summiting in the brief time we had left. Emily readily agreed that she was in over her head. But Hilaree was deeply offended and insisted that she should go for outline, the summit.
I explained it was an issue of safety for the whole team, but Hilaree was wounded. “I’m going to and pros essay say one thing,” she said, her voice welling with emotion as she left the tent, “[Expletive] you, Mark, for the vote of confidence.” This expedition was sponsored by a grant from National Geographic’s Expeditions Council and The North Face. Nothing is more damning in the mountains than hubris, yet hubris is fundamental to climbing mountains. All serious mountaineers possess big egos. You cannot take on the risks and constant suffering of big mountains without one. We may talk like Buddhists, but don’t be fooled, we’re actually narcissistsdriven, single-minded, masochistic narcissists. Essay! Nearly all of us, on cons and pros essay, some mountain at some time, have defied logic and refused to turn around, as Hilaree was doing now. Some of us have been lucky enough to survive those misguided moments. This may sound harsh, but I’m at research paper outline, a season in cons and pros, my climbing career where openness and honesty trump polite silence, even with my friends. We were all weary, light-headed from the thin air, and fearful of what lay ahead, and the conversations over anthropology research, the next hours devolved into shouting, accusations, and recriminations. Eventually, Cory couldn’t stand the rancor and said Hilaree could take his place on the summit team.
Renan and cons essay, I were concerned but reluctantly agreed to the new plan. At three the next morning, as we began to rope up, with a freezing Tibetan wind howling, Hilaree made the correct decision. She said it was too cold for her, reasoning that if she had a second bout with hypothermia, she might endanger the reading essays myfoundationslab team. She told Cory to go instead. “Why do we do this?” Cory asks, struggling like a contortionist to put his boots on cons and pros essay, inside the tiny tent. Outline! “Really!
Why?” His hands are too numb to tie the laces. “Because it’s so much fun,” Renan says drily, pressing his elbows against the snapping tent walls. After 39 days of boats and trains, snakes and leeches; after clawing up the sheer faces of Hkakabo’s west ridge; today is summit day. We each take slugs of steaming tea until the pot’s empty, then reluctantly crawl out of the tent into the battering wind. And Pros Essay! Spindrift is whirling around us. The sun is a distant cold ball.
We click on our crampons, rope up, and start climbing. Reading And Writing With! Our feet and fingers are numb, but moving beats trembling in cons essay, the tent. Our blood starts pumping, and warmth gradually returns to our cores. All serious mountaineers have big egos. You cannot take on the risks and constant suffering of big mountains without one. We may talk like Buddhists, but don’t be fooled, we’re actually hard-driving narcissists. Together we traverse the first of a series of large rock spires.
To either side, a mile below us, is an ocean of clouds. If one of us were to slip off the lance-like ridge, the only way to how to write an conclusion for an save his life would be for the next climber on and pros, the rope to quickly throw himself off the opposite research in the workplace side, both men praying in the millisecond of potential oblivion that the rope isn’t pulled taut over a knife-sharp rock and severed. Cons Essay! This is the depth of trust required in in essays, mountain climbing. And Pros Essay! This is anthropology paper how you transcend yourself and bond with your climbing partners. It is the reason we climb. We gather on a little point of snow to reassess. “I’m scared,” Cory says. “I’m really [expletive] scared. And Pros Essay! I think we should turn around.” His naked honesty is strangely comforting. He’s saying what we all feel. But Renan and religion and the human future an essay in theological humanism, I aren’t ready to turn back.
I lead down around a snowcapped block, up through a narrow hallway between two slabs of cons, rock, hook along a crescent of snow, and suddenly the entire route to the summit appears before me. I am aghast. We knew we had one more deep notch in the ridge to negotiate, but I see now that it is filled with massive stone teeth, like the jawbone of a dinosaur. It would take us hours, well into sponsorship the night, to climb through this wind-gnashed maw. To summit would require another night on cons, the mountain, but this time without a tent, stove, food, or water.
We would be perched on a ledge on the side of the mountain in the wind in the dark, and we would freeze to death. It is the point of no return. I realize we will not reach the top. We will not measure the height of Hkakabo Razi. We will not solve the mystery of Myanmar’s tallest mountain. I have been carrying a photo of Mike Moe and Keith Spencer for the entire expedition. In it, Mike and Keith are standing on and the an essay in theological humanism, a mountain wearing puffy down coats, helmets, and wide grins. I so fiercely wanted to place this picture on cons and pros, the summit. But it is not to essay be. I paw out a little hole and place the photo in the snow. I take a GPS reading at cons and pros essay, our high point, 18,841 feet, then climb slowly back along the ridge to Renan and Cory.