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Essays thomas macaulay

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Thomas babbington macaulay critical and historical essays

bths homework policy By: Ester Teper, Shreya Gupta, and Andrew Miller. Every school has class councils, club presidents, and essays thomas macaulay a community of leaders. At Biotech, there is an SGA: a group of students who work closely with teachers to manage school activities. On Friday, May 19th, the student body of paper thin, Biotechnology High School elected its Student Government Association for the 2018-2019 school year. These exceptional students were chosen in a variety of ways: through a school vote, teacher vote, or principal decision. Essays Thomas Macaulay. Biotech, here is your next SGA: Co-Presidents: Olivia Pasquale and Jeeshan Ahmed.

Directors of Student Affairs: Jack Campanella and Amelia Jay. PSFA Representative: Chimaobi Chikezie. Club Representative: Samuel Mueller. Freshman-Junior Representative: Odhran King. Sophomore-Senior Representative: Mia Bersalona. Communications Liaison: Arya Sharma. All of these students are ready to involve themselves in the school community, bring more people together, and make Biotech a home for everyone. We had the chance to interview our new leaders and ask them about their plans for their terms and endeavors for the upcoming year. Here’s what they had to say: What do you hope to do in the future in your position? “As co-president, my biggest goal is to bring positivity, happiness, and the essayes unity to this school. I know that we all have different groups of essays, friends and classes, but it's incredibly important to make sure that we are all friendly with each other, especially in a small, close-knit school like Biotech.

Of course, it's impossible to make everyone best friends, but it would be a huge accomplishment to successfully create an environment in which everyone is united and can have fun at school events. So I guess that's my biggest goal - to unite everyone further and to make school events the most fun they can possibly be.” Olivia Pasquale (Co-President) “I want to work on making freshman orientation less chaotic. When everyone is essay contest criteria, running around in the school, it’s kind of wild. If we mixed the essays macaulay Escape Room idea with the Amazing Race idea, it would make it easier and more energetic. The reason the Amazing Race is so crazy is thin display research, because everyone is running around. But if we mixed the two concepts together, it wouldn’t be as cramped and it would be more fun.

I also want to widen our outreach to other schools, especially Asbury Park and Red Bank.” Amelia Jay (Director of Student Affairs) Who specifically do you want to work with? “I would like to work with Students of Service, Junior Statesmen of America, and Arts Entertainment because they’re great clubs for anyone to get involved in, no matter their grade level, and they have some really cool events.” Mia Bersalona (Sophomore-Senior Representative) “Mr. Evancho and Ms. Siter; they’re my favorite people in essays thomas macaulay, the whole school and I’m excited to ross of business mba essays, get to know them better through SGA. They’re really great and intelligent mentors and I think we could make it a great year.” Arya Sharma (Communications Liaison) What is one specific project you’d like to implement and how will you do so? “A potential fundraiser I'd like to organize is selling coffee in thomas macaulay, the mornings in our school once in awhile. This would hopefully be a very popular event with the BTHS student body and faculty and would help raise funds for paper research our school.” Sam Mueller (Club Representative) “I want to implement more events like Battle of the thomas Classes, Mr. BTHS, End of Year Picnic, etc. Students at Biotech sometimes experience stressful working conditions and graduate school applications essays it’s nice to essays thomas, relax with fun events that people take a lot of on why is bad, joy in. ” Jeeshan Ahmed (Co-President) Why did you want to have the SGA position you now hold? “Several factors went into my decision to run for the Freshman-Junior Representative position. One of the main reasons why I ran for SGA was to become more involved in thomas, the BTHS community.

I believe that I offer a different mindset to essays of the cave, many of my peers, and that difference allows for essays macaulay me to present different ideas that will ultimately help the SGA lead the student body more efficiently. I ran for the Freshman-Junior Representative role specifically because I feel it is the position that best suits my personality. I am most efficient when I work with others towards a common goal, and thin working with the Freshman and essays macaulay Junior student councils will allow me to essays, really make a difference for our school.” Odhran King (Freshman-Junior Representative) “I ran for essays DOSA because I wanted to help out with organizing the open houses and freshmen orientation as a way to give back to BTHS for the essayes all the opportunities it has given me. I also want to recreate the feeling of excitement that was shared with me during both the information sessions and the freshmen orientation.” Jack Campanella (Director of Student Affairs) Now that you have been elected to SGA, what is one thing you want to do to essays, help improve this school for paper thin display research the students? “Well, because of my position as Parent Student Faculty Association Representative, I want to essays thomas, try to improve the physical education for juniors and seniors at our school. Right now, only freshmen and sophomores get gym class and paper display research I think it’s something that the juniors and seniors are really missing out on. Chimaobi Chikezie (PSFA Representative) What would you like to say to fellow students? Staff? Mr. Meehan? “There is essays thomas macaulay, so much I’d like to say to each individual member of judging, Biotech if I could, since all members helped me get to this point. I’m going to just say a few general groups, though.

To my sophomore classmates: Thank you for smiling back at me in the hallway, and thank you for supporting me :) To the freshmen, juniors, seniors: Thank you for letting me get to know you! And if I don’t know you too well, thank you for trusting me to thomas, get to know you in the future! To my teachers, Mr. Meehan, and the entire faculty: Thank you for ross school of business advising me when I was unsure if I should run for Co-president. And thank you for essays thomas macaulay being so approachable.

To everyone: I’m so grateful for this opportunity; thank you for electing me to be your next Co-President!” Olivia Pasquale (Co-President) On behalf of all the students at Biotech, we’d like to wish our officers congratulations and the very best of luck in their time in office! Biotechnology High School is judging, definitely an accepting place; the community is extremely diverse and essays thomas comprised of numerous different cultures, helping everyone fit in and make friends. However, coming in to Biotech a freshman can still be scary and a little daunting. In this article, current Biotech students give the class of 2021 advice on school essays, how to make the best of their high school experience. Why did you choose Biotech? “I chose Biotech because I went to a really small middle school with neither diversity nor students who had the same passion for essays thomas macaulay learning as I did. I knew some older kids from the judging criteria same town as me who went to Biotech, and they loved it. I knew I wanted to spend high school in a place where the atmosphere is macaulay, happy and supportive and the teachers are helpful and friendly, so coming to Biotech was an easy choice for me.” “I chose Biotech for the IB program. I loved the paper thin research idea of learning on the same level as students from all around the world, and the sense of community that is formed from it really drew me into the school. Also, I love biology (of course).” “I was initially set on going to MAST, but as soon as I saw how beautiful the school was and how amazingly composed and intelligent the students were, I knew I wanted to come to Biotech.

Every student I talked to seemed to thomas, have something interesting to mba essays, say and had a positive experience with the school. Being a highly rated high school in NJ at the time didn't hurt either” “I chose Biotech for the atmosphere and the student body. Essays Thomas. I knew it was a good school, but I worried if this was a place I was ready to spend the next four years at. When I went to the open house, I saw how nice and chill the students were and I really liked the atmosphere they created. Of Business. Also my older brother went here and essays loved it, so that's another factor.” What’s the best thing about Biotech? “The diversity of the student body. There are so many people of different cultures and backgrounds here that everyone has an interesting story to essay contest judging, tell. Essays. Coming from a small town where everyone tends to be pretty similar, I always find it interesting to talk about cultures with other people and to school essays, see how different cultures can contain many of the same elements.” “I feel comfortable to essays macaulay, be myself here. I can be loud with my friends without facing judgement, try hard in school without being labeled as a nerd,and try different things and go out of my comfort zone.” “The general sense of community and ross school belonging are unparalleled at this school. Friend groups are always expanding.

You constantly learn more about each others' experiences, beliefs, ambitions, and hopes. In the thomas process you'll make intimate connections with people who might be your friends for life.” What do you wish you knew before you came here? “I wish I knew about the thin display research gradual adjustment into the school workload, not only during freshman year, but throughout all of high school. The teachers here really do prepare you for each coming week, month, and thomas macaulay year, so that when the greatest obstacles come, you're prepared for them already.” “I wish I knew that the thin display research teachers aren’t out to get me, and essays thomas they really do care about us. The environment is not extremely intense, and it is vital to relax sometimes. Definitely be sure to figure out how to clear your brain of graduate, any extra information, and thomas write down things instead of keeping it in of business mba essays, your head.” “I came into the school thinking it'd be just like middle school and that I'd be at the top of the class academically. Going to Biotech, where everyone is in the top 5% of their middle school class, really evens the playing field. Although I'm not the best in my grade anymore, I feel like coming here has allowed me to separate my self-worth from my academic achievement.

I've learned that sometimes you're not going to thomas, understand what's going on in class and that you might fail a test, but people are always willing to help you out and no one's going to judge. The Essayes. We're all in the same boat here!” “I can't afford to procrastinate, even if it’s because I'm feeling a lot of anxiety. No matter what goes on thomas macaulay, in your personal life, your academic life just has to keep moving forward if you want to essays, do well. You cannot afford to fall back. Time management ties into this - you have to plan out your day and stick to macaulay, that plan if you intend to essays allegory of the, sleep at all.” “Make sure to thomas, manage your time, as this is what most people at Biotech struggle with at cave first. More than 50% of macaulay, Biotech students play sports, play an instrument, or are involved in extracurricular activities. The only way to handle the academic pressure and your life outside of school is to manage your time.

There’s no way around it.” What are the advantages of going to our school? “The students are in charge of clubs and have a lot of independence and responsibility. Also, you get to know your classmates really well considering there's only thin display, 80 students in essays thomas, a grade and you'll be with them for four years within a close proximity.” “1. Display. High ranking in NJ, so we get bragging rights. 2. Fun activities like Career and Wellness Days. 3. Unique opportunities for learning. 4. Awesome facilities for labs. 5. Great guidance program. 6. Friendly and supportive people.” “You're going to get a great learning experience and you're going to make friends from all over Monmouth County.

If you had asked me in 8th grade where Matawan was, I'd have no idea. But now that so many of my friends come from different towns in Monmouth County, I can basically label every town on a map. The lab skills you will learn in Biology, Research, and Biotech Lab Skills will put you way ahead of the game if you're interested in essays, working/interning as a lab assistant in the future. Essays On Why Is Bad. Also, people you meet will automatically consider you highly intelligent when you tell them you go to Biotech; that's always a plus!” “We have a great facility, amazing teachers, extremely intelligent and essays hard working people, and overall an environment that promotes academic pursuit and success. We have a lot of very cool scientific equipment that other schools do not, thus giving us a deeper and more comprehensive education in the STEM fields.” What are the disadvantages of going to our school? “Heavy workload and early start times. If you're the type of thin research, person that needs 10 hours of macaulay, sleep a day, not managing your time will have drastic consequences for you.” “There can be a lot of work that builds up, and there are periods of stress that can really test you (like when five different teachers each assign a test within the span of two or three days). On top of that, you have a large project due and you have to study, do homework and participate in whatever other activities you're in. The key to graduate school essays, these times is to find the calm within the storm and keep pushing through.” “Biotech is really open to new ideas for clubs, projects, events, and more. But because it's a small school, there's only so much effort and attention to go around. On top of that, everyone here is motivated to make a positive and lasting impact on the school, leading to some competition.

Both of essays thomas, these factors make it difficult to essay contest judging, get ideas approved and essays thomas macaulay implemented sometimes. But, if you're persistent and your idea is truly meaningful, then the problems above shouldn't stop you from doing what you love here.” “Students with interests in subjects other than science don't really get to excel and further their interests. We're a science school which makes sense why everything is essays on why speeding, heavily science based, but it would be nice if there were possibly electives that are non-science based to let people explore other avenues. I'm not a super a sciency person, but I still loved going to Biotech.” As a student of Biotech, what would you recommend to the incoming freshmen? “Do not expect to pass any exam regarding somewhat difficult topics without studying. Work hard, BUT GET SLEEP. Essays Thomas Macaulay. As the year goes on, don't expect that it will get easier, because it never does. However, you become a better student in display research, the process; if you have the motivation, you will power through and achieve what you want :)” “Try hard!

The classes are going to get MUCH more challenging to juggle Junior year and your GPA will greatly benefit in the long run from top notch freshman year grades. Thomas Macaulay. Also, don't stress if you feel lost in the essayes, class. Everyone comes from different middle school backgrounds and different amounts of schooling, so it might not be your fault if you don't quite know what's going on. Also, don't assume you're going to get straight A's like you did in middle school. Most the thomas kids here were straight A students in middle school, so the the essayes classes are all more challenging to even the playing field a bit. It's kind of like the SAT: it has to be super hard or else EVERYONE would get a perfect score. Essays Macaulay. Also, LIVE YOUR LIFE! Don't study too long, you've got the whole next 3 years (maybe 7+ if you're going to college/post graduate studies in the future) to work hard.

Everyone who goes to Biotech is a bright kid and school essays you're probably going to turn out alright, even if you don't do well on a couple tests. Take the essays macaulay time to go out and school essays make friends and socialize. It's an important part of being a kid. Don't let the academic rigor hold you back from happiness.” “Come into Biotech prepared to work harder than you ever have before. Biotech is not an extremely hard school. If you manage your time, study for every assessment, do homework when it's assigned, and sleep well regularly, academic success in Biotech is essays thomas macaulay, easy to the essayes, achieve. In terms of extracurriculars, get involved!

There are so many different clubs and groups within our school that meet, and you should take full advantage of them. Essays Thomas Macaulay. Although there can be stress and of business a lot of essays thomas, work, it's all manageable and you develop a great work ethic and the essayes unique perspective by going to this school.” “Try different things, such as fun clubs, events and classes. Also, don't break down when you receive your first low grade; you will recover and be fine. Try to be as organized as possible and get as much sleep as possible because it's no fun pulling an all-nighter on an assignment you had 2 weeks to complete. Make sure you hang with friends and do fun activities on thomas macaulay, the weekend instead of stay home and do homework; you need to have a fun high school experience. Learn from failed tests/assignments instead of putting yourself down and don't be afraid to ask for help from teachers or find a tutor. Essay. Also befriend the teachers and try to have conversations with them because the teachers are super cool and interesting and conversations with them are probably one of the best things to have at Biotech.” “In the coming years when you find obstacles to your desired path, use those experiences to improve yourself. Failing a test, falling behind on thomas, a project, not getting the display results you want, not getting the club position you want, and not getting your project approved are all obstacles that you could very easily encounter over the next four years. If you're able to develop new studying strategies, time managements skills, and so forth, then none of your efforts will have been in vain.

Make sure to take time to thomas, reflect on your experiences. Life at essays on plato's allegory of the Biotech is all about following through.” Is there anything you wish you had done differently freshmen year? “I wish I had signed up for more clubs and gotten more involved in extracurriculars. Now that I'm a junior, it's difficult to find leadership positions in clubs that I haven't created a strong reputation in over the last 2.5 years. I also wish I had asked teachers for help sooner. Essays Thomas Macaulay. At first, I felt really uneasy all the time because everyone seemed so smart. I felt embarrassed asking questions during class. I just let myself fall behind in class instead of asking for extra help, which ended up helping me a lot once I did ask.” “Freshmen year is about learning who you are as a friend, student, scientist, athlete, and on plato's allegory of the so on.

In the past I've looked back on freshmen year and essays thomas macaulay thought about criteria, what I should have done differently, but near the end of senior year everything is put into perspective. Now I look back on freshmen year and see it as a learning experience more than anything else. It's not that you *have to do this or that*. You can do whatever you'd like freshmen year as long as you leave your stigmas behind and try to essays, get the largest range of the essayes, experience possible through clubs, talking to new people, and more.” “I would have recognized the thomas macaulay opportunities to spend more time with my classmates. I put all of my time into making sure that I was doing well in essays allegory, school, and while this is definitely important too, there's a lot you can gain from essays thomas macaulay, your friends freshman year.” “I wish I managed my sleep schedule and drank a lot more water (it really helps with concentration and falling asleep).” What are some fun times you’ve had at Biotech? “In Forensics (my junior year elective), we were doing a fingerprint analysis lab using a black dust/charcoal material to capture the print. My friends and I thought it would be funny to use the charcoal dust as face paint and drew mustaches and funny shapes on allegory of the cave, our faces. We went to wash it off in the bathroom and learned the essays thomas stuff does not come off easily. So the rest of the day we had faint charcoal shaped mustaches on our faces. It was a fun day.” “Waffle parties, the idiom game, and watching cartoons with Mr.

Dannen. When Alvin Liu played Careless Whisper on the essayes, the saxophone in the middle of the MPR during lunch. Making video projects with friends for biology, Spanish, Digital Literacy, and other classes. Essays. Unofficial roast wars with Mr. Martin every class. No one wants to admit it, but efforts to weaken Mr. Martin via roast are in essay contest judging, vain.

He is too savage for such trivial matters. Ayush U and Ayush K, the real Ayush 2 battle. Always ongoing. Mr. Shafaie, always willing to help out in thomas, class and at lunch! His Pooh bears give freshmen life.” Biotech Students March for Science. School Of Business. By: Karolina Szenkiel. Biotech students at the March for Science in NYC. Essays. Science: it’s a universally beneficial and crucial endeavor for any nation hoping to advance and make its way in the world. Whether scientists are creating medications for diseases, monitoring climate change, or creating the technology powers our smartphones, everyone benefits from the growing pool of knowledge that science gives us.

That’s why many Americans found themselves shocked and the essayes confused when President Trump made moves to discredit climate science and cut research funding earlier in thomas macaulay, 2017. Inspired by the Women’s March in late January, science enthusiasts began to organize and school of business mba essays assemble a similar march to take place in Washington D.C. to essays, protest for science backed policy. On April 22 nd , Earth Day, the paper display research March for Science took place along with 600 other sister marches globally, amassing hundreds of thousands of protesters walking in the name of science. Some of essays, these were Biotech students. Given the fact that the average Biotech student will have finished six different science courses by essays is bad the end of sophomore year, it’s no surprise that BTHS students flocked to march in the name of science. Through their words, it is essays, clear to see that Biotech students care deeply about the role of science in politics.

Sophomore Kelli Valentini went to the March for Science in the essayes, New York City hoping to essays thomas, show her support for essays allegory of the cave the prevention of climate change. Although she does not consider herself the essays most politically active person, she says she felt compelled to join because, “It is imperative to support science, especially in the wake of essay contest, recent efforts by the Trump Administration to ignore facts and instead favor short-term profit regarding issues like climate change.” She strongly believes that the government should fund scientific research as well. “The discoveries that are absolutely crucial to the betterment of society and our world as a whole would never occur without funded research. These advancements can save lives and essays thomas macaulay money in the long run, with improvements in areas like medicine, energy efficiency, agriculture, and hundreds of other essential fields we typically don’t even consider.” Sophomore Christina Noel was also proud to be at the March for Science along with other Biotech students in New York City. Essays Is Bad. “I'm so glad that I was able to be a part of this, and it was great to see so many people involved and passionate about thomas, science!” Social media was buzzing with photos from the march too. Photos of colorful, creative, and sometimes comical signs filled people’s dashboards and feeds. “There was a big group of kids marching and they held signs that were cut into flowers and penguins, and they were all following an adult holding this huge butterfly, which I thought was adorable,” said Christina. Kelli sported her own punny sign, which read “Don’t mess with our field,” along with an illustration of electrical fields, which Biotech students learn about in physics sophomore year. “The March for Science is a celebration of science.

It’s not only about scientists and politicians; it is about the very real role that science plays in each of our lives and graduate essays the need to respect and encourage research that gives us insight into the world,” proclaims the March for essays Science website. Although the Trump Administration has yet to acknowledge the real dangers of scientifically proven climate change, one thing’s for sure: Biotech students will continue to champion science and fight for an administration that acknowledges climate change and other environmental issues. Speeding. Sophomore Kelli Valentini holds her sign at the March for Science in NYC. Science in the Real World: Graphene. In order to contribute more articles about things going on thomas macaulay, in the real world, especially in the science world, I feel it is important to essays, write this article about essays thomas macaulay, graphene.

Graphene is of business mba essays, essentially a one atom thick sheet of carbon, with tons of essays thomas macaulay, different properties and uses that make it such a versatile substance that is generally believed to be the “material of the future”. Applications. Pictured above, artist’s rendition of graphene. Thomas Macaulay. Graphene can be used for many different tasks due to its insane properties. It is the essayes, incredibly flexible, yet incredibly durable, making it nigh impossible to essays macaulay, break. Essays. It can be stretched, and is the world’s thinnest material along with being billed as the world’s best electrical conductor by the labs at the University of Manchester , who discovered the essays thomas macaulay substance in essay contest, 2004. It also acts as a perfectly impermeable barrier, not even allowing helium to pass through.

This incredible functionality is projected to essays thomas macaulay, lead to advancements in many fields, from essay contest, consumer electronics (i.e smartphones) to medical equipment and even water filtration systems, with it having recently been used to make saltwater potable . Thomas. Graphene can be used from contest judging, anything from augmented reality contact lenses, like the kind you see in movies, to more effective capacitors and energy storage, potentially even helping in the push for renewable energy in the modernized world, potentially even phasing out essays thomas macaulay copper and other traditional metals for wiring due to essay, its more effective electrical conduction. However, the essays macaulay methods to produce graphene are very expensive and time consuming. The means of production can be seen here . Interestingly, a new method of the essayes, graphene production has been invented at the University of Exeter in late 2016, that is macaulay, cheaper and produces higher yields of graphene, potentially accelerating the introduction of graphene into more mainstream products as opposed to more novelty things such as graphene tennis racquets . There is a downside to essays speeding, this new method, however, as it does not produce neat sheets of graphene as the previous method does, but instead produces chunks, making it harder to use as a replacement for things such as silicon semiconductors at this time.Who knows; maybe in 10 years everyone will have their own Tony Stark transparent phone. To conclude, I believe that graphene will become an incredibly important, versatile resource in essays macaulay, the future, and completely shift the way many of graduate, our current technology works, from things like refrigerators to essays thomas macaulay, data center computers. I believe that this new frontier will change the landscape of many major industries, and it is an incredibly important scientific discovery. Biotechnology High School has long prided itself on being a cohesive learning community containing students from various cultural backgrounds. This Thursday, the Spanish Honor Society is thrilled to be celebrating such diversity by hosting its 5th annual Multicultural Fair! It will take place on Thursday, April 27, from 6:00-8:00PM. There will be numerous performances, activity stations and informational booths. The performances will include Chinese, Indian, and Irish modern and fusion dances, while the activity booths will involve fun games and essays allegory of the decorating activities.

Meanwhile, the essays informational booths in essays on plato's allegory, the hallways will inform viewers about international current events and thomas cultural phenomena. There will also be a wide array of food available, including rice cakes, clafoutis, and graduate school applications essays whichever delicious dishes you decide to bring in yourself. Instead of selling tickets, each person attending will bring a food item or a beverage that represents your culture or any culture which you are enthusiastic about. The food can be homemade or purchased, and it must include a list of thomas macaulay, ingredients to accommodate for those that have food allergies/sensitivities. On Plato's. Students are welcome to bring in food the morning of April 27th, but if the item needs to be heated up or kept refrigerated, it is thomas macaulay, highly recommended that you bring it at thin display research the time of the event.

So make sure to macaulay, bring yourself (and your families) to the Multicultural Fair this Thursday in allegory of the cave, the MPR to be a part of this exciting celebration! Biotechnology High School. 5000 Kozloski Road | Freehold, NJ 07728 | Phone: 732.431.7208 | Fax: 732-431-1395 | CEEB Code: 310904 | Homepage | Facebook | Twitter.

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nietzsche essay 2 On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemical Tract. [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in thomas macaulay, the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the display source is acknowledged. Editorial comments and translations in square brackets and thomas, italics are by ross school of business, Ian Johnston; comments in normal brackets are from Nietzsche's text] Guilt, Bad Conscience and Related Matters. To breed an animal that is entitled to essays make promises—surely that is the essence of the paradoxical task nature has set itself where human beings are concerned? Isn't that the paper thin display research real problem of human beings? The fact that this problem has largely been resolved must seem all the more astonishing to a person who knows how to appreciate fully the power which works against this promise-making, namely forgetfulness. Forgetfulness is not merely a vis interiae [a force of inertia] , as superficial people think.

Is it much rather an active capability to repress, something positive in the strongest sense. We can ascribe to forgetfulness the fact what while we are digesting what we live through and experience and then absorb (we might call the process mental ingestion [Einverseeling] ), we are conscious of essays macaulay what is the essayes going on as little as we are with the thousand-fold process which our bodily nourishment goes through (so-called physical ingestion [Einverleibung] ). Thomas. The doors and windows of consciousness are shut from time to time, so that it stays undisturbed from the noise and struggle with which the underworld of essays of the cave our functional organs keeps them working for and against essays, one another—a small quiet place, a little tabula rasa [blank slate] of the consciousness, so that there will again be room for paper thin something new, above all, for the nobler functions and officials, for ruling, thinking ahead, determining what to do (our organism is arranged as an oligarchy)—that is, as I said, the use of active forgetfulness, like some porter at the door, a maintainer of psychic order, quiet, and etiquette. From that we can see at once how, if forgetfulness were not present, there could be no happiness, no cheerfulness, no hoping, no pride, no present. The man in whom this repression apparatus is harmed and not working properly we can compare to a dyspeptic (and not just compare)—he is finished with nothing. Now this necessarily forgetful animal in which forgetfulness is essays thomas present as a force, as a form of strong health, has had an essay, opposing capability bred into it, a memory, with the help of which, in certain cases, its forgetfulness will cease to function—that is, for those cases where promises are to be made. This is in no way a merely passive inability ever to be rid of an impression once it's been etched into essays macaulay, the mind, nor is it merely indigestion over a word one has pledged at a particular time.

No, it's an the essayes, active wish not to be free of the matter, a continuing desire for essays macaulay what one willed at a particular time, a real memory of one's will, so that between the original I will or I will do and the actual discharge of the will, its real action, without thinking about it, a world of essays on why is bad strange new things, circumstances, even acts of the will can intervene, without breaking this long chain of the will. But consider what that presupposes! In order to organize the future in thomas, this manner, human beings must have first learned to separate necessary events from chance events, to think in terms of cause and effect, to see distant events as if they were present, to anticipate them, to set goals and the means to reach them safely, to develop a capability for figures and graduate, calculations in general—and for that to occur, a human being must necessarily have first become something one could predict, something bound by regular rules, even in the way he imagined himself to himself, so that finally he is able to act like someone who makes promises—who makes himself into essays thomas, a pledge for the future! Precisely that development is the school mba essays history of the essays macaulay origin of responsibility. The task of breeding an animal with a right to make promises contains within it, as we have already grasped, as a condition and prerequisite, the more urgent prior task of making a human being necessarily uniform to some extent, one among many other like him, regular and graduate school, consequently predictable. The immense task in what I have called the morality of custom (cf. Daybreak , p. 7, 13, 16), the essays macaulay essential work of a man on his own self in the longest-lasting age of the human race, his entire pre-historical work, derives its meaning, its grand justification, from the following point, no matter how much hardship, tyranny, monotony and idiocy it also manifested: with the help of the on plato's allegory morality of custom and the social strait jacket, the human being was rendered truly predictable. Now, let's position ourselves, by contrast, at the end of this immense process, in the place where the tree finally yields its fruit, where society and the morality of custom finally bring to light the end for which they were simply the means. We find—as the ripest fruit on thomas macaulay, that tree—the sovereign individual, something which resembles only itself, which has broken loose again from the morality of custom—the autonomous individual beyond morality (for autonomous and moral are mutually exclusive terms)—in short, the human being who possesses his own independent and enduring will, who is entitled to make promises—and in him a proud consciousness, quivering in every muscle, of what has finally been achieved and given living embodiment in him: a real consciousness of power and freedom, a feeling of completion for human beings generally. This man who has become free, who really has the right to make promises, this master of free will, this sovereign—how can he not realize the superiority he enjoys over everyone who does not have the right to make a promise and make pledges on his own behalf, knowing how much trust, how much fear, and on plato's allegory of the, how much respect he creates (he is worthy of all three) and how, with this mastery over himself, he has necessarily been given in essays macaulay, addition mastery over his circumstances, over nature, and over all creatures with a shorter and less reliable will?

The free man, the owner of an on plato's cave, enduring unbreakable will, by possessing this, also acquires his own standard of essays thomas macaulay value: he looks out from himself at others and confers respect or withholds it. And just as it will be necessary for him to the essayes honour those like him, the strong and essays macaulay, dependable (who are entitled to make promises), in other words everyone who makes promises like a sovereign, seriously, rarely, and slowly, who is sparing with his trust, who honours another when he does trust, who gives his word as something reliable, because he knows he is strong enough to remain upright when opposed by misfortune, even when opposed by of the cave, fate, so it will be necessary for him to keep his foot ready to kick the thomas macaulay scrawny unreliable men, who make promises without being entitled to, and hold his cane ready to punish the liar who breaks his word in the very moment it comes out of is bad his mouth. The proud knowledge of the extraordinary privilege of responsibility, the consciousness of this rare freedom, this power over oneself and essays thomas macaulay, destiny have become internalized into the deepest parts of him and grown instinctual, have now become a dominating instinct. What will he call it, this dominating instinct, given that he finds he needs a word for it? There's no doubt about this question: this sovereign man calls this instinct his conscience. His conscience? To being with, we can conjecture that the idea of conscience, which we are encountering here in its highest, almost perplexing form, already had a long history and developmental process behind it.

To be entitled to pledge one's word, to do it with pride, and also to say yes to oneself—that right is a ripe fruit, as I have mentioned, but it is also a late fruit. For what a long stretch of time this fruit must have hung tart and sour on the tree! And for applications an even longer time it was impossible to see any such fruit. Essays Macaulay. It would appear that no one would have been entitled to make promises, even if everything about the tree was getting ready for it and was growing right in that direction. How does one create a memory for the essayes the human animal? How does one stamp something like that into essays, his partly dull, partly idiotic momentary understanding, this living embodiment of forgetfulness, so that it stays there? This ancient problem, as you can imagine, was not resolved right away with tender answers and methods. Perhaps there is nothing more fearful and more terrible in the entire pre-history of human beings than the ross school mba essays technique for developing his memory.

We burn something in so that it remains in the memory. Only something which never ceases to cause pain stays in the memory—that is a leading principle of the most ancient (and unfortunately the most recent) psychology on earth. We might even say that everywhere on earth nowadays where there is macaulay still solemnity, seriousness, mystery, gloomy colours in the lives of the essayes men and people, something of essays macaulay that terror is still at work, the fear with which in earlier times on earth people made promises, pledged their word, or praised something. The past, the longest, deepest, most severe past, breathes on us and surfaces in us when we become solemn. When the human being considered it necessary to make a memory for himself, it never happened without blood, martyrs, and essays, sacrifices—the most terrible sacrifices and pledges (among them the sacrifice of the thomas first born), the most repulsive self-mutilations (for example castration), the school applications essays cruellest forms of thomas macaulay ritual in on why is bad, all the religious cults (and all religions are at bottom systems of essays macaulay cruelty)—all that originates in that instinct which discovered that pain was the most powerful means of helping to develop the memory. In a certain sense all asceticism belongs here: a couple of ideas need to be made indissoluble, omnipresent, unforgettable, fixed, in order to hypnotize the entire nervous and ross school mba essays, intellectual system through these fixed ideas—and the ascetic procedures and forms of life are the means whereby these ideas are freed from jostling around with all the other ideas, in order to essays thomas macaulay make them unforgettable. The worse the human's memory was, the more terrible his customs have always appeared.

The harshness of the laws of punishment provide a special standard for measuring how much trouble people went to in order to triumph over forgetfulness and to maintain the awareness of a few primitive demands of social living together for this slave of momentary feelings and desires. We Germans certainly do not think of ourselves as a particularly cruel and hard-hearted people, even less as particularly careless people who live only in applications essays, the present. But have a look at thomas macaulay our old penal code in the essayes, order to understand how much trouble it took on this earth to breed a People of Thinkers (by that I mean the macaulay peoples of Europe, among whom today we still find a maximum of trust, seriousness, tastelessness, and practicality, and paper thin display research, who with these characteristics have a right to essays macaulay breed all sorts of on plato's of the European mandarins). These Germans have used terrible means to make themselves a memory in order to attain mastery over their vulgar and brutally crude basic instincts. Think of the old German punishments, for essays thomas example, stoning (even the legend lets the mill stone fall on the head of the guilty person), breaking on essays on why is bad, the wheel (the unique invention and specialty of the German genius in the area of punishment!), impaling on a stake, ripping people apart or stamping them to death with horses (quartering), boiling the criminal in oil or wine (still done in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries), the essays thomas well-loved practice of on why flaying (cutting flesh off in essays thomas, strips), carving flesh out of the chest, along with, of course, covering the offender with honey and leaving him to the flies in the burning sun.

With the help of such images and procedures people finally retained five or six I will not's in their memory, and so far as these precepts were concerned they gave their word in order to live with the advantages of essays on why society—and that was that! With the assistance of this sort of memory people finally came to reason! Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over emotions, the essays macaulay whole gloomy business called reflection, all these privileges and ceremonies of human beings—how expensive they were! How much blood and horror is the basis for all good things. But then how did that other gloomy business, the consciousness of guilt, the whole bad conscience come into thin display research, the world? With this we turn back to our genealogists of thomas morality. I'll say it once more—or perhaps I haven't said it at all yet—they are useless. Essays On Why Speeding Is Bad. With their own purely modern experience extending only through five periods, with no knowledge of or any desire to know the past, and even less historical insight, a second perspective—something so necessary at this point—they nonetheless pursue the history of morality. Thomas. That must inevitably produce results which have a less than tenuous relationship to the truth. Have these genealogists of school of business morality up to this point allowed themselves to dream, even remotely, that, for instance, the major moral principle guilt [Schuld] derives its origin from the very materialistic idea debt [Schulden] or that punishment developed entirely as repayment, without reference to any assumption about the freedom or lack of freedom of the will—and did so to the point where it first required a high degree of human development [Vermenschlichung] so that the animal man began to make those much more primitive distinctions between intentional, negligent, accidental, of sound mind, and their opposites and bring them to macaulay bear when handing out punishment?

That unavoidable idea, nowadays so trite and display research, apparently natural, which has really had to thomas macaulay serve as the explanation how the the essayes feeling of justice in essays thomas, general came into existence on earth—The criminal deserves punishment because he could have acted otherwise—this idea, in fact, is an extremely late achievement, indeed, a sophisticated form of human judgment and decision making. Anyone who moves this idea back to the very beginnings is sticking his coarse fingers inappropriately into the psychology of primitive humanity. For the most extensive period of human history punishment was not meted out allegory of the cave because people held the essays instigator of evil responsible for his actions, nor was it assumed that only the guilty party should be punished. It was much more the case, as it still is paper thin display now when parents punish their children, of anger over some harm which people have suffered, anger vented on essays macaulay, the perpetrator. But this anger was restrained and modified through the idea that every injury had some equivalent and that compensation for school essays it could, in fact, be paid out, even if that was through the pain of the perpetrator. Where did this primitive, deeply rooted, and perhaps by now ineradicable idea derive its power, the idea of an equivalence between punishment and essays thomas macaulay, pain?

I have already given away the answer: in the contractual relationship between creditor and debtor, which is as ancient as the on plato's allegory of the idea of someone subject to law and which, in itself, refers back to the basic forms of buying, selling, bartering, trading, and exchanging goods. It's true that recalling this contractual relationship arouses, as we might expect from what I have observed above, all sorts of essays thomas macaulay suspicion of and opposition to primitive humanity which established or allowed it. It's precisely at applications essays this point that people make promises. Here the pertinent issue is essays thomas macaulay that the ross school of business mba essays person who makes a promise has to essays thomas macaulay have a memory created for him, so that precisely at this point, we can surmise, there exists a site for what is hard, cruel, and painful. In order to inspire trust in his promise to pay back, in order to give his promise a guarantee of its seriousness and sanctity, in order to impress on his own conscience the idea of on why is bad paying back as a duty, an obligation, the essays thomas macaulay debtor, by virtue of the contract, pledges to the creditor, in the event that he does not pay, something that he still owns, something over which he still exercises power, for the essayes example, his body or his wife or his freedom or even his life (or, under certain religious conditions, even his blessedness, the salvation of his soul, or finally his peace in the grave, as was the case in Egypt, where the dead body of the debtor even in essays, the grave found no peace from the creditor—and it's certain that with the Egyptians such peace was particularly important). That means that the creditor could inflict all kinds of the essayes ignominy and torture on the body of the essays thomas macaulay debtor—for instance, slicing off the body as much as seemed appropriate for the size of the debt. And this point of view early on and everywhere gave rise to precise, horrific estimates going into finer and finer details, legally established estimates, about individual limbs and the essayes, body parts. I consider it already a step forward, as evidence of a freer conception of the law, something which calculates more grandly, something more Roman, when Rome's Twelve Tables of Laws decreed it was all the same, no matter how much or how little the creditor cut off in such cases: si plus minusve secuerunt, ne fraude esto [let it not be thought a crime if they cut off more or less].

Let's clarify the logic of essays macaulay this whole method of compensation—it is weird enough. The equivalency is given in this way: instead of an essays on why speeding, advantage making up directly for the harm (hence, instead of essays thomas compensation in gold, land, possessions of some sort or another), the school essays creditor is given a kind of thomas pleasure as repayment and compensation—the pleasure of being allowed to discharge his power on a powerless person without having to think about it, the delight in de fair le mal pour le plaisir de le faire [doing wrong for the pleasure of doing it] , the enjoyment of violation. This enjoyment is more highly prized the graduate essays lower and baser the essays macaulay debtor stands in the social order, and it can easily seem to the creditor a delicious mouthful, even a foretaste of a higher rank. By means of the punishment of the the essayes debtor, the creditor participates in a right belonging to the masters. Finally he himself for once comes to the lofty feeling of despising a being as someone below himself, as someone he is entitled to mistreat—or at least, in the event that the real force of punishment, of inflicting punishment, has already been transferred to the authorities, the feeling of macaulay seeing the debtor despised and mistreated. The compensation thus consist of a permission for and right to cruelty. In this area, that is, in the laws of obligation, the world of moral concepts guilt, conscience, and sanctity of obligations was conceived. Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on on why speeding is bad, earth, were watered thoroughly and for a long time with blood. And can we not add that this world deep down has never again been completely free of a certain smell of blood and torture—(not even with old Kant whose categorical imperative stinks of cruelty . . Essays Thomas Macaulay. . ). Ross Mba Essays. In addition, here the weird knot linking the ideas of guilt and suffering, which perhaps has become impossible to undo, was first knit together. Let me pose the question once more: to what extent can suffering be a compensation for debts? To the extent that making someone suffer provides the highest degree of pleasure, to essays thomas macaulay the extent that the person hurt by the debt, in school essays, exchange for the injury and for the distress caused by thomas macaulay, the injury, got an offsetting pleasure—making someone suffer—a real feast, something that, as I've said, was valued all the more, the greater the difference between him and the rank and social position of the creditor.

I have been speculating here, for it's difficult to essay contest see such subterranean things from the thomas surface, quite apart from the fact that it's an embarrassing subject. Anyone who crudely throws into research, the middle of all this the essays thomas macaulay idea of revenge has merely buried and dimmed his insights rather than illuminated them (revenge itself takes us back to the very same problem How can making someone suffer give us a feeling of satisfaction?). It seems to me that the delicacy and even more the hypocrisy of tame house pets (I mean modern man, I mean us) resist a really powerful understanding of ross of business mba essays just how much cruelty contributes to the great celebratory joy of essays macaulay primitive humanity, as an ingredient mixed into almost all their enjoyments and, from another perspective, how nave and innocent their need for cruelty appears, how they basically accept disinterested malice (or to on why is bad use Spinoza's words, the sympathia malevolens [malevolent sympathy] ) as a normal human characteristic, and hence as something to essays thomas which their conscience says a heartfelt Yes! A more deeply penetrating eye might still notice, even today, enough of this most ancient and most basic celebratory human joy. In Beyond Good and Evil , p. 117 ff. (even earlier in contest criteria, Daybreak , p. 17, 68, 102), I pointed a cautious finger at the constantly growing spiritualization and deification of essays cruelty, which runs through the entire history of judging higher culture (and, in a significant sense, even constitutes that culture). In any case, it's not so long ago that people wouldn't think of an thomas macaulay, aristocratic wedding and folk festival in essay, a grand style without executions, tortures, or something like an auto-da-f [ burning at the stake ], and no noble household lacked creatures on whom people could vent their malice and cruel taunts without a second thought (remember Don Quixote at the court of the duchess). Today we read all of Don Quixote with a bitter taste on the tongue—it's almost an ordeal. In so doing, we become very foreign, very obscure to the author and his contemporaries. They read it with a fully clear conscience as the thomas most cheerful of books. They almost died laughing at it.

Watching suffering makes people feel good, making someone suffer makes them feel even better—that is a harsh principle, but an old, powerful, and human, all-too-human major principle, which, by the way, even the apes might agree with. For people say that, in thinking up bizarre cruelties, the paper thin display research apes already anticipate a great many human actions and, as it were, act them out. Without cruelty there is no celebration: that's what the oldest and longest era of human history teaches us—and with punishment, too, there is so much celebration!— With these ideas, by the way, I have no desire whatsoever to give our pessimists grist for their discordant mills grating with the weariness of life. On the contrary, I want to state very clearly that in essays thomas, that period when human beings had not yet become ashamed of their cruelty, life on earth was happier than it is now, now that we have our pessimists. The darkening of heaven over men's heads always increased quickly in proportion to the growth of human beings' shame at human beings. The Essayes. The tired pessimistic look, the mistrust of the riddle of life, the essays icy denial stemming from disgust with life—these are not the signs of the wickedest eras in the history of human beings. It's more the case that they first come to light as the swamp plants they are when the swamp to which they belong is there—I mean the sickly mollycoddling and moralizing, thanks to which the animal man finally learns to feel shame about all his instincts. On his way to becoming an angel (not to use a harsher word here), man developed an upset stomach and a furry tongue which made him not only fight against the joy and innocence of the animal but even lose his taste for life, so that now and then he stands there, holds his nose, and with Pope Innocent III disapproves of himself and makes a catalogue of his nastiness (conceived in filth, disgustingly nourished in his mother's body, developed out of evil material stuff, stinking horribly, discharging spit, urine, and essay judging, excrement). Now, when suffering always has to march out as the first argument against existence, as its most serious question mark, it's good for us to essays remember the times when people saw things the other way around, because they couldn't do without making people suffer and saw a first-class magic in the essayes, it, a really tempting enticement for living.

Perhaps, let me say this as a consolation for the delicate, at that time pain didn't hurt as much as it does nowadays. At least that could be the conclusion of a doctor who had treated a Negro (taking the latter as a representative of pre-historical man) for essays thomas macaulay a bad case of inner inflammation, which drives the European with the best constitution to despair but which doesn't have the same effect on the Negro. (The graph of the human capacity for pain seems in fact to sink down remarkably and almost immediately after the first ten thousand or ten million of the the essayes top members of the higher culture. And I personally have no doubt that, in comparison with one painful night of thomas macaulay a single hysterical well-educated female, the total suffering of all animals which up to now have been interrogated by graduate school applications essays, the knife of science is macaulay really insignificant). Perhaps it is even permissible to mba essays concede the essays thomas possibility that the graduate school applications essays pleasure in cruelty does not really need to die out. Since today pain does more harm, the relevant pleasure needed only to essays thomas macaulay be sublimated and made more subtle—in other words, it had to essay contest criteria appear translated into the imaginative and spiritual and embellished with nothing but names so unobjectionable that they arouse no suspicion in even the most delicate hypocritical conscience (tragic pity is one such name; another is les nostalgies de la croix [nostalgia for the cross] ). What really enrages people about essays, suffering is not the suffering itself, but the meaninglessness of ross school mba essays suffering. But neither for the Christian, who sees in suffering an entire secret machinery for salvation, nor for thomas the nave men of older times, who understood how to interpret all suffering in relation to of business mba essays the spectator or to the person inflicting the essays suffering, was there generally any such meaningless suffering. In order for the hidden, undiscovered, unwitnessed suffering to be removed from the world and for people to be able to deny it honestly, they were then almost compelled to invent gods and intermediate beings at all levels, high and low—briefly put, something that also roamed in hidden places, that also looked into the darkness, and that would not readily permit an contest judging criteria, interesting painful spectacle to escape its attention.

Hence, with the thomas help of applications essays such inventions life then understood and has always understood how to justify itself by a trick, how to justify its evil. Nowadays perhaps it requires other helpful inventions (for example, life as riddle, life as a problem of knowledge). Every evil which is thomas macaulay uplifting in essays on why speeding, the eyes of God is justified: that's how the pre-historical logic of feeling rang out—and was that really confined to pre-history? The gods conceived of as friends of cruel spectacle—oh, how far this primitive idea rises up over the development of our European humanity! We might well seek advice from Calvin and Luther on this point. At any rate it is certain that even the essays macaulay Greeks knew of no more acceptable snack to offer their gods for their happiness that the joys of cruelty. With what sort of expression, do you think, did Homer allow his gods to look down on on why, the fate of men?

What final sense was there essentially in the Trojan War and similar frightful tragedies? We cannot entertain the slightest doubts about this: they were intended as celebrations for essays the gods—and, to the extent that the poet is in on plato's of the, these matters more godlike than other men, as festivals for the poets as well. Macaulay. Later the Greek moral philosophers in the same way imagined the allegory of the eyes of god looking down on the moral struggles, on heroism and the self-mutilation of the essays thomas virtuous: the Hercules of duty was on stage, and he knew he was there. Without someone watching, virtue for this race of actors was something entirely inconceivable. Surely that daring and fateful philosophical invention, first made for Europe at that time, the free will, the absolutely spontaneous nature of human beings in matters of paper display research good and evil, was created above all to thomas macaulay justify the idea that the is bad interest of essays thomas gods in men and in human virtue could never run out? On this earthly stage there was never to be any lack of really new things, really unheard of suspense, complication, catastrophe. A world conceived of as perfectly deterministic would have been predictable and therefore also soon boring for the gods. That was reason enough for these friends of the gods, the philosophers, not to ascribe such a deterministic world to their gods! All of ancient humanity is of business full of sensitive consideration for essays thomas macaulay the spectator, for a truly public, truly visible world, which did not know how to imagine happiness without dramatic performances and on plato's of the cave, festivals.

And, as I have already said, in the great punishments there is also so much celebration! To resume the path of essays thomas our enquiry, the feeling of guilt, of personal obligation has, as we saw, its origin in the oldest and most primitive personal relationship there is and has been—in the relationship between seller and essay judging criteria, buyer, creditor and debtor. Here for the first time one person encountered another person and measured himself against essays thomas, him. We have not yet found a civilization at such a low level that something of this relationship is not already perceptible. To set prices, measure values, think up equivalencies, to essay criteria exchange things—that preoccupied man's very first thinking to such a degree that in thomas, a certain sense it's what thinking is. The very oldest form of astuteness was bred here—here, too, we can assume are the first beginnings of human pride, his feeling of pre-eminence in relation to other animals. Perhaps our word man [ Mensch ] ( manas ) continues to express directly something of this feeling of the self: the human being describes himself as a being which assesses values, which values and measures, as the calculating animal as such. Selling and buying, together with their psychological attributes, are even older than the graduate applications beginnings of any form of thomas macaulay social organization and grouping. It is graduate essays much rather the case that out of the most rudimentary form of personal legal right the budding feeling of exchange, contract, guilt, law, duty, compensation were first transferred to the crudest and earliest social structures (in their relationships with similar social structures), along with the habit of comparing power with power, of essays measuring, of calculating. The eye was now at any rate adjusted to this perspective, and with that awkward consistency characteristic of the thinking in ancient human beings, hard to get started but then inexorably moving forward in the same direction, people soon reached the great generalization Everything has its price, everything can be paid off—the oldest and most nave moral principle of justice, the beginning of all good nature, all fairness, all good will, all objectivity on earth. Justice at the essayes this first stage is essays thomas macaulay good will among those approximately equal in power to come to terms with each other, to understand each other again by compensation—and in relation to those less powerful, to compel them to arrive at some settlement among themselves.

Still measuring by the standard of pre-history (a pre-history which, by essays on plato's allegory of the cave, the way, is present at essays all times or is capable of returning), the community also stands in relation to its members in that important basic relationship of the creditor to his debtors. People live in on plato's allegory of the, a community. Thomas. They enjoy the advantages of a community (and what fine advantages they are! Nowadays we sometimes underestimate them)—they live protected, cared for, in thin, peace and trust, without worries concerning certain injuries and essays thomas, enmities from which the ross school of business mba essays man outside the essays thomas community, the man without peace, is excluded—a German understands what misery [ Elend ] or lend [ other country ] originally meant—and how people pledge themselves to and enter into obligations with the community bearing in mind precisely these injuries and enmities. What will happen with an exception to this case? The community, the defrauded creditor, will see that it gets paid as well as it can—on that people can rely. The issue here is least of all the immediate damage which the offender has caused.

Setting this to essays speeding is bad one side, the lawbreaker [ Verbrecher ] is above all a breaker [ Brecher ]—a breaker of contracts and a breaker of his word against the totality, with respect to all the good features and advantages of the communal life in which, up to that point, he has had a share. The lawbreaker is a debtor who does not merely not pay back for the benefits and advances given to him, but who even attacks his creditor. So from this point on not only essays thomas macaulay, does he lose, as is reasonable, all these good things and benefits, but he is also more pertinently reminded what these good things are all about. The anger of the injured creditor, the community, gives him back the essays is bad wild condition, as free as a bird, from which he was earlier protected. It pushes him away from it, and now every form of hostility can vent itself on him. At this stage of cultural behaviour punishment is simply the copy, the mimus , of the essays normal conduct towards the ross school hated, disarmed enemy who has been thrown down, who has lost not only thomas, all rights and protection but also all mercy—hence it is a case of the rights of war and the victory celebration of vae victis [ woe to the conquered ] in all its ruthlessness and cruelty, which accounts for the fact that war itself (including the the essayes warlike cult of sacrifice) has given us all the ways in which punishment has appeared in history. As it acquires more power, a community considers the crimes of a single individual less serious, because they no longer make him as dangerous and unsettling for the existence of the community as much as they did before. The wrong doer is no longer left without peace and thrown out, and the common anger can no longer vent itself on him without restraint to the same extent it did before. It is rather the case that the wrong doer from now on is carefully protected by the community against this anger, particularly from that of the injured person, and is taken into protective custody.

The compromise with the anger of essays thomas macaulay those most immediately affected by the wrong doing, and essays on why speeding, thus the effort to localize the case and to avert a wider or even a general participation and unrest, attempts to find equivalents and to settle the whole business (the compositio ), above all the desire, appearing with ever-increasing clarity, to consider every crime as, in some sense or other, capable of essays being paid off, and thus, at least to some extent, to mba essays separate the criminal and thomas macaulay, his crime from each other—those are the characteristics stamped more and more clearly on the further development of criminal law. If the mba essays power and the self-confidence of essays thomas macaulay a community keeps growing, the essays on why speeding is bad criminal law grows constantly milder. Every weakening and profound jeopardizing of the community brings the harsher forms of criminal law to light once more. The creditor always became proportionally more human as he became richer. Finally the amount of his wealth itself establishes how much damage he can sustain without suffering from it. It would not be impossible to imagine a society with a consciousness of its own power which allowed itself the essays thomas most privileged luxury which it can have—letting its criminals go free without punishment. Why should I really bother about my parasites, it would then say. May they live and prosper—for that I am still sufficiently strong! . . . Justice, which started by stating Everything is capable of research being paid for, everything must be paid off ends at that point, by covering its eyes and letting the person incapable of payment go free—it ends, as every good thing on earth ends, by doing away with itself.

This self-negation of justice—we know what a beautiful name it call itself—mercy. It goes without saying that mercy remains the privilege of the most powerful man, or even better, his movement beyond the law. Now a critical word about a recently published attempt to find the origin of justice in quite a different place—that is, in essays thomas, resentment. But first let me speak a word in the essayes, the ear of the psychologists, provided that they have any desire to study resentment itself up close for once: this plant grows most beautifully nowadays among anarchists and anti-Semites—in addition, it blooms, as it always has, in hidden places, like the violet, although it has a different fragrance. And since like always has to emerge from like, it is not surprising to see attempts coming forward from just such circles (see above, p. 30 [ First Essay ]) to essays sanctify revenge under the name of justice, as if justice were basically simply a further development of a feeling of being injured [ Verletzt-seins ], and to bring belated respect to emotional reactions generally, all of them, using the idea of revenge. With this last point I personally take the least offence. It even seems to me a service, so far as the entire biological problem is concerned (in connection with which the worth of these emotions has been underestimated up to allegory now). The only thing I'm calling attention to is the fact that it is the very idea of resentment itself out of which this new emphasis on scientific fairness grows (which favours hate, envy, resentment, suspicion, rancour, and revenge).

This scientific fairness, that is, ceases immediately and gives way to tones of mortal enmity and prejudice as soon as it deals with another group of emotions which, it strikes me, have a much higher biological worth than those reactive ones and which therefore have earned the right to be scientifically assessed and given a high value—namely, the truly active emotions, like desire for mastery, acquisitiveness, and so on (E. Dhring, The Value of Life: A Course in Philosophy , the whole book really). So much against this tendency in general. But in connection with Dhring's single principle that we must seek the homeland of macaulay justice in the land of the essays allegory of the cave reactive feeling, we must, for love of the truth, rudely turn this around by setting out a different principle: the macaulay last territory to be conquered by contest judging criteria, the spirit of justice is the macaulay land of the reactive emotions! If it is truly the graduate school applications essays case that the just man remains just even towards someone who has injured him (and not just cold, moderate, strange, indifferent: being just is always a positive attitude), if under the sudden attack of personal injury, ridicule, and suspicion, the essays gaze of the lofty, clear, deep, and benevolent objectivity of the just and judging eye does not grow dark, well, that's a piece of perfection and the highest mastery on earth, even something that it would be wise for people not to expect and certainly not to believe in too easily. It's certainly true that, on the essayes, average, even among the most just people even a small dose of essays macaulay hostility, malice, and insinuation is enough to make them see red and chase fairness out of their eyes. The active, aggressive, over-reaching human being is always placed a hundred steps closer to justice than the reactive. Ross Of Business. For him it is macaulay not even necessary in the slightest to estimate an object falsely and with bias, the way the reactive man does and ross school, must do. Thus, as a matter of fact, at all times the aggressive human being—the stronger, braver, more noble man—has always had on his side a better conscience as well as a more independent eye.

And by macaulay, contrast, we can already guess who generally has the invention of bad conscience on graduate essays, his conscience—the man of resentment! Finally, let's look around in history: up to now in what area has the whole implementation of law in general as well as the thomas macaulay essential need for law been at speeding is bad home? Could it be in the area of the reactive human beings? That is entirely wrong. It is much more the case that it's been at home with the active, strong, spontaneous, and aggressive men. Historically considered, the law on essays, earth—let me say this to the essayes the annoyance of the above-mentioned agitator (who himself once made the confession The doctrine of essays thomas revenge runs through all my work and efforts as the red thread of justice)—represents that very struggle against on why, the reactive feelings, the war with them on essays, the part of active and the essayes, aggressive powers, which have partly used up their strength to put a halt to essays macaulay or restrain reactive pathos and to essays allegory of the cave compel some settlement with it. Everywhere where justice is practised, where justice is upheld, we see a power stronger in essays, relation to a weaker power standing beneath it (whether with groups or individuals) seeking a means to bring an end among the ross school latter to the senseless rage of resentment, partly by dragging the object of resentment out of the hands of revenge, partly by setting in the place of revenge a battle against the enemies of peace and order, partly by coming up with compensation, proposing it, under certain circumstances making it compulsory, sometimes establishing certain equivalents for injuries as a norm, which from now on resentment has to deal with once and for all. The most decisive factor, however, which the highest power carries out and sets in place against the superior power of the essays feelings of hostility and animosity—something that power always does as soon as it feels itself strong enough—is to on why speeding set up laws, the imperative explanation of those things which, in its own eyes, are considered allowed and legal and which are considered forbidden and illegal.

In the process, after the essays establishment of the law, the authorities treat attacks and arbitrary acts of individuals or entire groups as an outrage against the law, as rebellion against the highest power itself, and they steer the feelings of essays speeding is bad those beneath them away from the immediate damage done by such outrages and thus, in the long run, achieve the reverse of thomas macaulay what all revenge desires, which sees only the viewpoint of the essay contest judging criteria injured party and considers only that valid. From now on, the eye becomes trained to thomas evaluate actions always impersonally, even the eye of the harmed party itself (although this would be the very last thing to occur, as I have remarked earlier). Consequently, only with the setting up of the law is there a just and unjust (and not, as Dhring will have it, from the time of the injurious action). To talk of just and unjust in themselves has no sense whatsoever—it's obvious that in themselves harming, oppressing, exploiting, destroying cannot be unjust, insofar as life essentially works that way, that is, in its basic functions it harms, oppresses, exploits, and judging, destroys—and cannot be conceived at all without these characteristics. We must acknowledge something even more alarming—the fact that from the highest biological standpoint, conditions of law must always be exceptional conditions, partial restrictions on the basic will to live, which is set on thomas, power—they are subordinate to paper thin display research the total purpose of this will as its individual means, that is, as means to create a larger unit of power. A legal system conceived of as sovereign and universal, not as a means in the struggle of power complexes, but as a means against essays thomas macaulay, all struggles in general, something along the lines of Dhring's communist clich in which each will must be considered as equal to every will, that would be a principle hostile to life, a destroyer and dissolver of human beings, an graduate essays, assassination attempt on the future of human beings, a sign of exhaustion, a secret path to nothingness.

Here another word concerning the origin and purpose of punishment—two problems which are separate or should be separate. Essays Macaulay. Unfortunately people normally throw them together. How do the the essayes previous genealogists of essays macaulay morality deal with this problem? Naively—the way they always work. They find some purpose or other for punishment, for example, revenge or deterrence, then in a simple way set this purpose at the beginning as the causa fiendi [ creative cause ] of punishment and then that's it—they're finished.

The purpose in allegory of the cave, law, however, is the thomas very last idea we should use in the history of the essays on plato's allegory of the cave emergence of law. It is much rather the case that for all forms of history there is no more important principle that the one which we reach with such difficulty but which we also really should reach, namely that what causes a particular thing to arise and the final utility of that thing, its actual use and arrangement in a system of purposes, are separate toto coelo [ by all the essays thomas heavens, i.e., absolutely ], that something existing, which has somehow come to its present state, will again and again be interpreted by the higher powers over it from a new perspective, appropriated in contest criteria, a new way, reorganized for and redirected to thomas new uses, that all events in the organic world involve overpowering, acquiring mastery and that, in turn, all overpowering and acquiring mastery involve a re-interpretation, a readjustment, in school applications, which the sense and purpose up to then must necessarily be obscured or entirely erased. No matter how well we have understood the usefulness of some physiological organ or other (or a legal institution, a social custom, a political practice, some style in art or in essays thomas, religious cults), we have not, in that process, grasped anything about its origin—no matter how uncomfortable and unpleasant this may sound in elderly ears. From time immemorial people have believed that in demonstrable purposes, the usefulness of a thing, a form, or an institution they could understand the reasons it came into existence—the eye as something made to display see, the thomas hand as something made to grasp. So people also imagined punishment as invented to punish. On Why Speeding. But all purposes, all uses, are only signs that a will to power has become master over something with less power and has stamped on it its own meaning of some function, and the entire history of thomas a thing, an organ, a practice can by this process be seen as a continuing chain of school signs of essays thomas constantly new interpretations and adjustments, whose causes need not be connected to each other—they rather follow and take over essay, from each other under merely contingent circumstances. Consequently, the thomas macaulay development of a thing, a practice, or an organ has nothing to do with its progress towards a single goal, even less is it the logical and shortest progress reached with the least expenditure of power and resources, but rather the sequence of more or less profound, more or less mutually independent processes of overpowering which take place on that thing, together with the resistance which arises against that overpowering each time, the transformations of form which have been attempted for paper research the purpose of defence and reaction, the results of essays successful countermeasures.

Form is fluid—the meaning, however, is even more so . . Essays On Why Speeding. . Even within each individual organism things are no different: with every essential growth in the totality, the meaning of an essays macaulay, individual organ also shifts—in certain circumstances its partial destruction, a reduction of its numbers (for example, through the destruction of intermediate structures) can be a sign of growing power and perfection. Let me say this: the partial loss of utility, decline, and degeneration, the loss of meaning, and purposelessness, in short, death, belong to the conditions of a real progress, which always appears in the form of a will and a way to greater power always establishing itself at the expense of paper display research a huge number of essays thomas smaller powers. The size of a step forward can even be estimated by graduate school applications essays, a measure of everything that had to be sacrificed to it. The mass of humanity sacrificed for essays thomas macaulay the benefit of a single stronger species of man—that would be a step forward . School Essays. . Thomas Macaulay. . I emphasize this major point of view about historical methodology all the more since it basically runs counter to the present ruling instinct and display research, contemporary taste, which would rather go along with the absolute contingency, even the mechanical meaninglessness of thomas macaulay all events rather than with the theory of a will to power playing itself out in everything that happens. The democratic idiosyncrasy of school mba essays being hostile to everything which rules and wants to rule, the modern ruler-hatred [ Misarchismus ] (to make up a bad word for a bad thing), has gradually transformed itself and dressed itself up in intellectual activity, the most intellectual activity, to such an extent that nowadays step by step it infiltrates the strictest, apparently most objective scientific research, and is allowed to infiltrate it. Indeed, it seems to me already to have attained mastery over all of physiology and the understanding of life, to their detriment, as is obvious, because it has conjured away from them their fundamental concept—that of real activity. By contrast, under the pressure of this idiosyncrasy we push adaptation into essays thomas macaulay, the foreground, that is, a second-order activity, a mere re-activity—in fact, people have defined life itself as an always purposeful inner adaptation to external circumstances (Herbert Spencer). But that simply misjudges the essence of life, its will to essays on plato's allegory of the power. That overlooks the first priority of the spontaneous, aggressive, over-reaching, re-interpreting, re-directing, and shaping powers, after whose effects the adaptation first follows. Thus, the governing role of the highest functions in an organism, ones in which the will for living appear active and creative, are denied.

People should remember the criticism Huxley directed at Spencer for his administrative nihilism. But the issue here concerns much more than administration . . . Returning to the business at hand, that is, to punishment, we have to differentiate between two aspects of thomas it: first its relative duration, the way it is carried out, the action, the drama, a certain strict sequence of procedures and, on on plato's of the, the other hand, its fluidity, the meaning, the purpose, the essays thomas expectation linked to the implementation of essay criteria such procedures. In this matter, we can here assume, without further comment, per analogium [ by analogy ], in accordance with the major viewpoints about the historical method we have just established, that the procedure itself will be somewhat older and earlier than its use as a punishment, that the latter was only injected and interpreted into the procedure (which had been present for a long time but was a tradition with a different meaning), in short, that it was not what our nave genealogists of morality and law up to macaulay now assumed, who collectively imagined that the procedure was invented for the purpose of punishment, just as people earlier thought that the hand was invented for the purpose of grasping. Now, so far as that other element in the essayes, punishment is concerned, the fluid element, its meaning, in a very late cultural state (for example in contemporary Europe) the idea of punishment actually presents not simply one meaning but a whole synthesis of macaulay meanings. The history of punishment up to now, in general, the history of its use for different purposes, finally crystallizes into a sort of unity, which is judging difficult to untangle, difficult to analyze, and, it must be stressed, totally incapable of definition. (Today it is impossible to say clearly why we really have punishment—all ideas in which an entire process is semiotically summarized elude definition—only something which has no history is capable of being defined). At an earlier stage, by contrast, that synthesis of essays thomas meanings appears much easier to untangle, as well as easier to adjust. We can still see how in every individual case the elements in essays on plato's allegory cave, the synthesis alter their valence and rearrange themselves to such an extent that soon this or that element steps forward and dominates at the expense of the rest—indeed, under certain circumstances one element (say, the purpose of deterrence) appears to rise above all the other elements. In order to essays thomas give at least an idea of how uncertain, how belated, how accidental the meaning of punishment is and paper, how one and the same procedure can be used, interpreted, or adjusted for fundamentally different purposes, let me offer here an example which presented itself to me on the basis of relatively small and random material: punishment as a way of rendering someone harmless, as a prevention from further harm; punishment as compensation for thomas the damage to the essayes the person injured, in some form or other (also in essays thomas, the form of emotional compensation); punishment as isolation of school applications some upset to an even balance in order to avert a wider outbreak of the disturbance; punishment as way of bringing fear to those who determine and carry out punishment; punishment as a sort of compensation for the advantages which the law breaker has enjoyed up until that time (for example, when he is made useful as a slave working the mines); punishment as a cutting out of a degenerate element (in some circumstances an entire branch, as in Chinese law, and thus a means to keep the race pure or to sustain a social type); punishment as festival, that is, as the violation and humiliation of some enemy one has finally thrown down; punishment as a way of making a conscience, whether for the man who suffers the punishment—so-called reform—or whether for those who witness the essays punishment being carried out; punishment as the payment of an honorarium, set as a condition by those in power, which protects the wrong doer from the excesses of revenge; punishment as a compromise with the natural condition of revenge, insofar as the latter is still upheld and assumed as a privilege by essay contest judging criteria, powerful families; punishment as a declaration of war and a war measure against an enemy to peace, law, order, and authority, which people fight with the very measures war makes available, as something dangerous to the community, as a contract breaker with respect to its conditions, as a rebel, traitor, and breaker of the peace. Of course, this list is not complete.

Obviously punishment is overloaded with all sorts of useful purposes—all the more reason why people infer from it an alleged utility, which in macaulay, the popular consciousness at least is considered the most essential one. Faith in punishment, which nowadays for several reasons is thin research getting very shaky, always finds its most powerful support in precisely this: Punishment is supposed to be valuable in waking a feeling of guilt in the guilty party. Thomas. In punishment people are looking for the actual instrument for that psychic reaction called bad conscience and pangs of contest conscience. In doing this, people still apply reality and psychology incorrectly to present issues—and how much more incorrectly to the greater part of man's history, his prehistory! Real pangs of conscience are something extremely rare precisely among criminals and prisoners. Prisons and macaulay, penitentiaries are not breeding grounds in of business mba essays, which this species of gnawing worm particularly thrives—on that point all conscientious observers agree, in many cases delivering such a judgment with sufficient unwillingness, going against their own desires.

In general, punishment makes people hard and cold. It concentrates. It sharpens the feeling of estrangement and strengthens powers of resistance. If it comes about that punishment shatters a man's energy and brings on macaulay, a wretched prostration and paper thin display, self-abasement, such a consequence is surely even less pleasant than the ordinary results of punishment—characteristically a dry and gloomy seriousness. However, if we consider the millennia before the history of humanity, without a second thought we can conclude that the very development of a feeling of guilt was most powerfully hindered by punishment, at least with respect to the victims onto whom this force of macaulay punishment was vented. For let us not underestimate just how much the criminal is prevented by the sight of judicial and executive processes from the essayes, sensing the nature of his action as something reprehensible in itself, for he sees exactly the same kind of actions undertaken in macaulay, the service of justice, applauded and practised in good conscience, like espionage, lying, bribery, entrapment, the whole tricky and graduate school essays, sly art of the essays thomas police and allegory, prosecution, as it develops in the various kinds of punishment—the robbery, oppression, abuse, imprisonment, torture, murder (all done as a matter of principle, without any emotional involvement as an excuse).

Such actions are in no way rejected or condemned in themselves by his judges, but only in essays, particular respects when used for certain purposes. Bad conscience, this most creepy and interesting plant among our earthly vegetation, did not grow in this soil. In fact, for the essayes the longest period in the past no notion of dealing with a guilty party penetrated the consciousness of judges or even those doing the essays macaulay punishing.. They were dealing with someone who had caused harm, with an irresponsible piece of fate. And the man on whom punishment later fell, once again like a piece of fate, experienced in that no inner pain, other than what came from the essays on why speeding sudden arrival of something unpredictable, a terrible natural event, a falling, crushing boulder against which there is no way to fight. At one point Spinoza became aware of this point (something which irritates his interpreters, like Kuno Fischer, who really go to great lengths to misunderstand him on this issue), when one afternoon, confronted by some memory or other (who knows what?), he pondered the question about what, as far as he was concerned, was left of the celebrated morsus conscientiae [ the thomas macaulay bite of conscience ]—for he had expelled good and evil into essays on plato's cave, the human imagination and essays thomas macaulay, had irascibly defended the honour of his free God against those blasphemers who claimed that in everything God worked sub ratione boni [ with good reason ] (but that means that God would be subordinate to essay judging Fate, a claim which, if true, would be the greatest of all contradictions). Thomas Macaulay. For Spinoza the world had gone back again into that state of innocence in essays on why is bad, which it existed before the fabrication of the essays thomas macaulay idea of a bad conscience. So what, then, had happened to school applications the morsus conscientiae ? The opposite of gaudium [ joy ], Spinoza finally told himself is sorrow, accompanied by the image of something over and done with which happened contrary to all expectation ( Ethics III, Proposition XVIII, Schol. I. II).

Just like Spinoza, those instigating evil who incurred punishment have for thousands of years felt in connection with their crime Something has unexpectedly gone awry here, not I should not have done that. They submitted to their punishment as people submit to a sickness or some bad luck or death, with that brave fatalism free of essays thomas macaulay revolt which, for example, gives the on plato's of the cave Russians an advantage over us westerners in coping with life. If back then there was some criticism of the act, such criticism came from essays macaulay, prudence: without question we must seek the essential effect of punishment above all in an increase of prudence, in a extension of memory, in a will to go to work from now on more carefully, mistrustfully, and secretly, with the awareness that we are in many things too weak, in a kind of improved ability to judge ourselves. In general, what can be achieved through punishment, in human beings and animals, is an increase in fear, a honing of prudence, control over desires. In the process, punishment tames human beings, but it does not make them better. Thin Display. People might be more justified in asserting the opposite (Popular wisdom says Injury makes people prudent, but to the extent that it makes them prudent it also makes them bad. Fortunately, often enough it makes people stupid.) At this point, I can no longer avoid setting out, in an initial, provisional statement, my own hypothesis about the origin of bad conscience.

It is not easy to get people to attend to thomas it, and it requires them to consider it at length, to guard it, and to on why is bad sleep on it. I consider bad conscience the profound illness which human beings had to essays macaulay come down with, under the pressure of the most fundamental of all the the essayes changes which they experienced—that change when they found themselves locked within the confines of society and peace. Thomas. Just like the things water animals must have gone though when they were forced either to become land animals or to die off, so events must have played themselves out with this half-beast so happily adapted to the wilderness, war, wandering around, adventure—suddenly all its instincts were devalued and disengaged. From this point on, these animals were to go on foot and carry themselves; whereas previously they had been supported by the water. A terrible heaviness weighed them down. In performing the simplest things they felt ungainly. In dealing with this new unknown world they no longer had their old leader, the ruling unconscious drives which guided them safely. School. These unfortunate creatures were reduced to thinking, inferring, calculating, bringing together cause and effect, reduced to their consciousness, their most impoverished and error-prone organ! I believe that on earth there has never been such a feeling of misery, such a leaden discomfort—while at the same time those old instincts had not all at once stopped imposing their demands! Only it was difficult and seldom possible to do their bidding. For the most part they had to find new and, as it were, underground satisfactions for them.

All instincts which are not discharged to thomas macaulay the outside are turned back inside. This is what I call the internalization of man. From this first grows in man what people later call his soul. The entire inner world, originally as thin as if stretched between two layers of skin, expanded and extended itself, acquired depth, width, and height to the extent that the discharge of human instinct out into the world was obstructed. The Essayes. Those frightening fortifications with which the organization of the state protected itself against the old instincts for essays thomas macaulay freedom—punishment belongs above all to these fortifications—made all those instincts of the display wild, free, roaming man turn backwards, against macaulay, man himself. Enmity, cruelty, joy in pursuit, in attack, in change, in destruction—all those turned themselves against the possessors of graduate school essays such instincts. That is the origin of bad conscience. The man who lacked external enemies and opposition and was forced into an oppressive narrowness and macaulay, regularity of custom, impatiently tore himself apart, persecuted himself, gnawed away at himself, grew upset, and did himself damage—this animal which scraped itself raw against graduate school applications, the bars of its cage, which people want to tame, this impoverished creature, consumed with longing for the wild, had to create in essays thomas macaulay, itself an adventure, a torture chamber, an uncertain and dangerous wilderness, this fool, this yearning and puzzled prisoner, was the inventor of bad conscience. With him was introduced the greatest and weirdest illness, from which human beings today have not recovered, the suffering of man from his humanness, from himself, a consequence of the forcible separation from his animal past, a leap and, so to speak, a fall into new situations and living conditions, a declaration of war against the old instincts, on which, up to that point, his power, joy, and ability to inspire fear had been based. Let us at on plato's cave once add that, on the other hand, the fact that there was now an animal soul turned against thomas macaulay, itself, taking sides against itself, provided this earth with something so new, profound, unheard of, enigmatic, contradictory, and portentous [ Zukunftsvolles ], that the picture of the earth was fundamentally changed.

In fact, it required divine spectators to approve the dramatic performance which then began and the essayes, whose conclusion is not yet in essays macaulay, sight, a spectacle too fine, too wonderful, too paradoxical, to be allowed to play itself out senselessly and the essayes, unobserved on some ridiculous star or other. Since then man has been included among the most unexpected and essays thomas, most thrilling lucky rolls of the dice in the game played by Heraclitus' great child, whether he's called Zeus or chance. The Essayes. In himself he arouses a certain interest, tension, hope, almost a certainty, as if something is announcing itself in him, is preparing itself, as if the thomas human being were not the goal but only the way, an episode, a great promise . . . Inherent in this hypothesis about the origin of bad conscience is, firstly, the assumption that this change was not gradual or voluntary and essays allegory cave, did not manifest an organic growth into new conditions, but was a break, a leap, something forced, an thomas, irrefutable disaster, against which there was no struggle nor any resentment. Secondly, it assumes that the adaptation of a populace which had hitherto been unchecked and shapeless into a fixed form was initiated by an act of violence and was carried to its conclusion by nothing but sheer acts of violence, that consequently the very oldest State emerged as a terrible tyranny, as an oppressive and the essayes, inconsiderate machinery and essays macaulay, continued working until such a raw materials of people and half-animals finally were not only thoroughly kneaded and essays speeding, submissive but also given a shape. I used the word State—it is self-evident who is meant by that term—some pack of blond predatory animals, a race of conquerors and masters, which, organized for war and with the power to organize, without thinking about essays macaulay, it, sets its terrifying paws on a subordinate population which may perhaps be vast in numbers but is still without any shape, is essays allegory still wandering about. That's surely the way the State begins on earth. I believe that that fantasy has been done away with which sees the thomas beginning of the essay contest criteria state in some contract. The man who can command, who is naturally a master, who comes forward with violence in his actions and essays thomas macaulay, gestures—what has a man like that to do with making contracts! We cannot negotiate with such beings.

They come like fate, without cause, reason, consideration, or pretext. Graduate. They are present as lightning is present, too fearsome, too sudden, too convincing, too different even to become hated. Their work is the instinctive creation of forms, the imposition of essays thomas macaulay forms. They are the most involuntary and unconscious artists in existence. Where they appear something new is soon present, a living power structure, something in which the essays on plato's cave parts and essays macaulay, functions are demarcated and coordinated, in mba essays, which there is, in general, no place for anything which does not first derive its meaning from its relationship to the totality.

These men, these born organizers, have no idea what guilt, responsibility, and consideration are. In them that fearsome egotism of the artist is in charge, which stares out like bronze and knows how to justify itself for all time in the work, just like a mother with her child. They are not the ones in essays thomas, whom bad conscience grew—that point is obvious. But this hateful plant would not have grown without them. Graduate Essays. It would have failed if an immense amount of freedom had not been driven from the world under the pressure of their hammer blows—or at least driven from sight and, as it were, had become latent. This powerful instinct for macaulay freedom, once made latent (we already understand how), this instinct driven back, repressed, imprisoned inside, and contest, finally able to thomas macaulay discharge and direct itself only against itself—that and that alone is essays what bad conscience is in its beginnings. We need to be careful not to entertain a low opinion of this entire phenomenon simply because it is from the essays thomas outset hateful and judging, painful.

Basically it is the same active force which is at work on a grander scale in those artists of power and organization and which builds states. Here it is inner, smaller, more mean spirited, directing itself backwards, into the labyrinth of the breast, to use Goethe's words, and it builds bad conscience and negative ideals for itself, that very instinct for freedom (to use my own language, the will to power). Thomas Macaulay. But the speeding material on which the thomas macaulay shaping and violating nature of this force directs itself is man himself, all his old animal self, and not, as in that greater and more striking phenomenon, on another man or on other men. This furtive violation of the self, this artistic cruelty, this pleasure in giving a shape to oneself as if to a tough, resisting, suffering material, to burn into it a will, a critique, a contradiction, a contempt, a denial—this weird and horribly pleasurable work of a soul voluntarily divided against itself, which makes itself suffer for the pleasure of creating suffering, all this active bad conscience, as the womb of ideal and the essayes, imaginative events, finally brought to light—we have already guessed—also an abundance of essays macaulay strange new beauty and affirmation, perhaps for essays allegory cave the first time the idea of the beautiful. Essays Thomas. . . . For what would be beautiful, if its opposite had not yet come to ross an awareness of itself, if ugliness had not already said to itself, I am ugly . . . At least, after this hint one paradox will be less puzzling—how contradictory ideas, like selflessness, self-denial, and self-sacrifice, can connote an ideal, something beautiful. And beyond that, one thing we do know—I have no doubt about it—namely, the nature of the pleasure which the essays macaulay selfless, self-denying, self-sacrificing person experiences from the start: this pleasure belongs to cruelty. So much for the moment on the origin of the unegoistic as something of essays on plato's allegory of the moral worth and on the demarcation of the soil out of which this value has grown: only bad conscience, only the will to abuse the self, provides the condition for the value of the unegoistic. Bad conscience is a sickness—there's no doubt about that—but a sickness as pregnancy is a sickness.

Let's look for the conditions in essays, which this illness has arrived at its most terrible and most sublime peak. In this way we'll see what really first brought about its entry into essays allegory of the, the world. But that requires a lot of endurance—and we must first go back to an earlier point. Essays Thomas Macaulay. The relationship in civil law between the debtor and the creditor, which I have reviewed extensively already, has been reinterpreted once again in an extremely remarkable and dubious historical manner into a relationship which we modern men are perhaps least capable of understanding, namely, into paper display research, the relationship between those people presently alive and their ancestors. Within the original tribal cooperatives—we're talking about primeval times—the living generation always acknowledged a legal obligation to the previous generations, and especially to the earliest one which had founded the tribe (and this was in no way merely a sentimental obligation—the latter is something we could reasonably claim was absent for the longest period of the human race). Here the reigning conviction was that the tribe exists only because of the sacrifices and achievements of their ancestors, and thomas, that people must pay them back with sacrifices and achievements. In this people recognize a debt which keeps steadily growing because these ancestors in their continuing existence as powerful spirits do not stop giving the of business mba essays tribe new advantages and lending them their power. Do they do this gratuitously? But there is no gratuitously for essays these raw and graduate school applications essays, spiritually destitute ages.

What can people give back to them? Sacrifices (at first as nourishment understood very crudely), festivals, chapels, signs of honour, and, above all, obedience—for all customs, as work of one's ancestors, are also their statutes and commands. Do people ever give them enough? This suspicion remains and essays, grows. From time to the essayes time it forcefully requires wholesale redemption, something huge as a payment back to the creditor (the notorious sacrifice of the first born, for example, blood, human blood in thomas macaulay, any case). Fear of essay judging criteria ancestors and their power, the awareness of one's debt to them, according to this kind of logic, necessarily increases directly in proportion to the increase in the power of the tribe itself, as the tribe finds itself constantly more victorious, more independent, more honoured, and more feared. It's not the other way around! Every step towards the decline of the tribe, all conditions of misery, all indications of degeneration, of dissolution, always lead to a diminution in the fear of the spirit of its founder and give a constantly smaller image of his wisdom, providence, and present power. If we think this crude logic through to its conclusion, then the ancestors of the most powerful tribes must, because of the thomas fantasy of increasing fear, finally have grown into essays on plato's allegory, something immense and thomas macaulay, have been pushed into the darkness of a divine mystery, something beyond the powers of imagination, so the ancestor is necessarily transfigured into the essayes, a god.

Here perhaps lies even the origin of the thomas gods, thus an origin out of fear! . Graduate Applications. . . And the man to essays whom it seems obligatory to add But also out of piety could hardly claim to be right for essays on why speeding is bad the longest period of human history, for his pre-history. Of course, he would be all the more correct for the middle period in macaulay, which the noble tribes developed, those who in fact paid back their founders, their ancestors (heroes, gods), with interest, all the characteristics which in essays of the, the meantime had become manifest in themselves, the noble qualities. Later we will have another look at the process by which the essays macaulay gods were ennobled and graduate, exalted (which is essays macaulay naturally not at ross mba essays all the same thing as their becoming holy). But now, for the moment, let's follow the path of this whole development of the consciousness of essays guilt to ross its conclusion. As history teaches us, the consciousness of being in debt to the gods did not in essays thomas, any way come to the essayes an end after the macaulay downfall of communities organized on the basis of blood relationships. Just as humanity inherited the ross mba essays ideas of good and bad from the nobility of the tribe (together with its fundamental psychological tendency to set up orders of rank), so people also inherited, as well as the divinities of the tribe and essays, extended family, the pressure of as yet unpaid debts and the desire to be relieved of them. Ross Of Business. (The transition is essays thomas made with those numerous slave and ross of business, indentured populations which adapted themselves to the divine cults of their masters, whether through compulsion or through obsequiousness and mimicry; from them this inheritance overflowed in all directions). The feeling of being indebted to the gods did not stop growing for several thousands of years—always, in essays, fact, in direct proportion to paper the extent to which the idea of god and the feeling for god grew and were carried to the heights. (The entire history of macaulay ethnic fighting, victory, reconciliation, mergers—everything which comes before the final rank ordering of all the elements of a people in essay judging, that great racial synthesis—is mirrored in the tangled genealogies of its gods, in the sagas of their fights, victories, and reconciliations. The progress towards universal kingdoms is at the same time always also the progress toward universal divinities.

In addition, despotism, with its overthrow of the independent nobles always builds the essays thomas macaulay way to some variety of monotheism). The arrival of the Christian god, as the greatest god which has yet been reached, thus brought a manifestation of the greatest feeling of indebtedness on earth. Assuming that we have gradually set out in on plato's allegory of the, the reverse direction, we can infer with no small probability that, given the inexorable decline of faith in macaulay, the Christian god, even now there already may be a considerable decline in on plato's allegory of the, the human consciousness of guilt. Indeed, we cannot dismiss the idea that the complete and final victory of atheism could release humanity from this entire feeling of being indebted to its origins, its causa prima [ prime cause ]. Atheism and a kind of second innocence belong together. So much for macaulay a brief and paper thin display research, rough preface concerning the connection between the ideas guilt and obligation with religious assumptions. Up to this point I have deliberately set aside the actual moralizing of thomas macaulay these ideas (the repression of them into the conscience, or more precisely, the complex interaction between a bad conscience and the idea of god). At the end of the previous section I even talked as if there was no such thing as this moralizing and speeding is bad, thus as if now these ideas had necessarily come to essays macaulay an end after the collapse of their presuppositions, the faith in ross of business mba essays, our creditor, in thomas macaulay, God.

But to ross school of business mba essays a terrible extent the essays thomas facts indicate something different. The moralizing of the ideas of debt and duty, with their repression into the essayes, bad conscience, actually gave rise to the attempt to reverse the direction of the development I have just described, or at least to macaulay bring its motion to a halt. Now, in a fit of pessimism, the prospect of a final installment must once and for all be denied. Now, our gaze is to bounce off and ricochet back despairingly off an iron impossibility, now those ideas of debt and duty are supposed to turn back. But against essays speeding, whom? There can be no doubt: first of all against the debtor, in whom from macaulay, this point on bad conscience, firmly set in him, eating into him and spreading out essays on plato's of the like a polyp, grows wide and deep, until finally, with the impossibility of discharging the debt, people think up the idea of the impossibility of removing the essays macaulay penance, the idea that the ross school debt cannot be paid off (eternal punishment). Essays. Finally however, those ideas of debt and duty turn back even against the creditor. People should, in this matter, now think about the causa prima [first cause] of humanity, about the beginning of the human race, about their ancestor who from now on is loaded down with a curse (Adam, original sin, no freedom for the will,) or about nature from whose womb human beings arose and into whom from ross school mba essays, now on the principle of essays macaulay evil is inserted (the demonizing of nature) or about is bad, existence in thomas, general, which remains something without value in itself (nihilistic turning away from existence, longing for nothingness, or a desire for its opposite, in an alternate state of being, Buddhism and things like that)—until all of a sudden we confront the paradoxical and horrifying expedient with which a martyred humanity found temporary relief, that stroke of genius of Christianity—God's sacrifice of himself for the essayes the guilt of human beings, God paying himself back with himself, God as the only one who can redeem man from what for human beings has become impossible to redeem—the creditor sacrifices himself for the debtor, out of love (can people believe that?), out of love for his debtor! . Essays Thomas. . . You will already have guessed what went on with all this and behind all this: that will to self-torment, that repressed cruelty of animal man pushed inward and forced back into himself, imprisoned in the state to make him tame, who invented bad conscience in order to paper research lacerate himself, after the thomas more natural discharge of this will to of business inflict pain had been blocked, this man with a bad conscience seized upon religious assumptions to drive his self-torment into something most horrifying—hard and sharp. Guilt towards God: this idea becomes his instrument of essays thomas torture.

He sees in God the ultimate contrast he is capable of discovering to his real and indissoluble animal instincts. He interprets these very animal instincts as a crime against God (as enmity, rebellion, revolt, against the master, the father, the original ancestor and beginning of the world). He grows tense with the contradiction of God and devil, from himself he hurls every denial which he says to himself, his nature, his naturalness, the reality of his being as an affirmative yes, as something existing, as living, as real, as God, as the blessedness of God, as God the Judge, as God the Hangman, as something beyond him, as eternity, as perpetual torment, as hell, as punishment and the essayes, guilt beyond all measure. In this mental cruelty there is essays thomas macaulay a kind of insanity of the will, which simply has no equal: the human will finding him so guilty and reprehensible that there is no atonement, his will to imagine himself punished but in such a way that the on why speeding punishment can never be adequate for essays thomas his crime, his will to infect and poison the most fundamental basis of things with the problem of punishment and guilt in order to ross mba essays cut himself off once and for all from any exit out of this labyrinth of fixed ideas, his will to erect an ideal (that of the holy God) in thomas macaulay, order to graduate school applications essays be tangibly certain of his own absolute worthlessness when confronted with it. Oh this insane, sad beast man! What ideas he has, what unnaturalness, what paroxysms of nonsense, what bestiality of essays thought breaks from him as soon as he is prevented, if only on why is bad, a little, from being a beast in deed! . . . All this is excessively interesting, but there's also a black, gloomy, unnerving sadness about it, so that man must forcefully hold himself back from gazing too long into these abysses. Here we have an illness—no doubt about thomas, that—the most terrifying illness that has raged in human beings up to now. And anyone who can still hear (but nowadays people no longer have the ears for this) how in essay contest judging criteria, this night of torment and insanity the cry of love has resounded, the thomas macaulay cry of the most yearning delight, of redemption through love, turns away, seized by an invincible horror. . . In human beings there is the essayes so much that is essays terrible! . . Applications Essays. . For too long the world has been a lunatic asylum! . . . These remarks should be sufficient, once and for all, for the origin of the holy God.

The fact that conceiving gods does not necessarily, in itself, lead to a degraded imagination—that's something we have to consider for macaulay a moment, the point that there are more uplifting ways to use the invention of the gods than for this human self-crucifixion and self-laceration in which Europe in paper thin, the last millennia has become an expert. Fortunately that something we can infer if we take a look at the Greek gods, these reflections of nobler men, more rulers of essays thomas macaulay themselves, in whom the animal in man felt himself deified and did not tear himself apart, did not rage against himself! These Greeks for the longest time used their gods for the very purpose of keeping that bad conscience at on why speeding is bad a distance, in order to be able to continue to macaulay enjoy their psychic freedom. The Essayes. Hence, their understanding was the opposite of how Christianity used its God. In this matter the Greeks went a long way, these splendid and lion-hearted Greeks, with their child-like minds. Essays Thomas. And no lesser authority than that of Homer's Zeus himself now and then tells them that they are making things too easy for themselves.

It's strange, he says at one point in relation to the case of Aegisthus, a very bad case— It's strange how these mortal creatures complain about the gods! Evil comes only from the essayes, us, they claim, but they themselves. Stupidly make themselves miserable, even contrary to essays thomas macaulay fate. But at the same time we hear and see that even this Olympian spectator and judge is far from being irritated or thinking of them as evil because of this: How foolish they are he thinks in relation to the bad deeds of mortal men. And the Greeks of the strongest and bravest times conceded that much about themselves—the foolishness, stupidity, a little disturbance in the head were as far as the basis for many bad and fateful things are concerned—foolishness, not sin! Do you understand that? . . . But even this disturbance in the head was a problem, Indeed, how is this even possible? Where could this have really come from in ross of business, heads like the ones we have, we men of noble descent, happy, successful, from the best society, noble, and thomas macaulay, virtuous? For hundreds of years the noble Greek posed this question to himself in relation to any incomprehensible horror or outrage which had defiled one of his peers.

Some god must have deluded him, he finally said, shaking his head . . Speeding Is Bad. . This solution is typical of the Greeks . . . Essays Macaulay. In this way, the paper thin research gods then served to justify men to a certain extent, even in bad things. They served as the thomas origin of evil—at that time the gods took upon themselves, not punishment, but, what is on why speeding is bad nobler, the guilt. I'll conclude with three question marks—that's clear enough. You may perhaps ask me, Is an ideal being built up here or shattered? . Thomas. . . But have you ever really asked yourself how high a price has been paid on earth for the construction of every ideal? How much reality had to be constantly vilified and on why is bad, misunderstood, how many lies had to thomas be consecrated, how many consciences corrupted, how much god had to essay judging criteria be sacrificed every time? That is the law—show me the case where it has not been fulfilled! . Thomas Macaulay. . . We modern men, we are the inheritors of the vivisection of the conscience and the self-inflicted animal torture of the past millennia. That's what we have had the most practice doing, that is perhaps our artistry—in any case it is something we have refined to spoil our taste. For too long man has looked at thin display his natural inclinations with an essays thomas macaulay, evil eye, so that finally in him they have become twinned with bad conscience. An attempt to reverse this might be possible, but who is strong enough for that, that is, to interrelate with bad conscience the unnatural inclinations, all those aspirations for thin what lies beyond us, which goes against our senses, our instincts, nature, animals—in short, the earlier ideals, all the ideals which are anti-life and have vilified the world. To whom can we turn to today with such hopes and demands? . . Essays Thomas Macaulay. . We would have precisely the good men against us, as well, of course, as the comfortable, the complacent, the vain, the enthusiastic, the tired . . . But what is more offensive, what cuts us off more fundamentally from these others, than letting them take some note of the severity and loftiness with which we deal with ourselves. On Why Speeding Is Bad. And by contrast how obliging, how friendly all the essays world is in the essayes, relation to macaulay us, as soon as we act as all the world does and let ourselves go just like everyone else! . . . To attain the goal I'm talking about requires a different sort of spirit that those which really exist at this time: spirits empowered by war and victory, for whom conquest, adventure, danger, and even pain have even become a need.

That would require getting acclimatized to keen, high air, winter wanderings, to ice and mountains in every sense. That would require even a kind of sublime maliciousness, an ultimate self-conscious willfulness of knowledge, which comes with great health. Briefly put, that would unfortunately require this great health! . . . Is this even possible today? . . Mba Essays. . But at some time or other, in a more powerful time than this mouldy, self-doubting present, he must nonetheless come to us, the redeeming man of essays thomas great love and contempt, the creative spirit, constantly pushed away from the sidelines or from the beyond by his own driving power, whose isolation is misunderstood by people as if it were a flight from reality, whereas it is his immersion, burial, and absorption into nothing but reality, so that once he comes out of criteria it into the light again, he brings back the thomas redemption of this reality, its redemption from the curse which the previous ideal had laid upon it. This man of the future, who will release us from the essayes, that earlier ideal and, in so doing, from those things which had to grow from it, from the great loathing, from the will to nothingness, from nihilism—that stroke of noon and of the essays great decision which makes the will free once again, who gives back to the earth its purpose and to human beings their hope, this anti-Christ and Anti-nihilist, this conqueror of God and of nothingness—at some point he must come . . . But what am I talking about here? Enough, enough!

At this stage there's only criteria, one thing appropriate for me to do: keep quiet. Otherwise, I'll make the mistake of essays macaulay arrogating to myself something which only someone younger is free to do, someone with a greater future, someone more powerful than I—something which only cave, Zarathustra is macaulay free to do, Zarathustra the Godless. . .

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Introductory Note Thomas Babington Macaulay 1909-14 English

and bressay Bressay shelters Lerwick from the thomas macaulay, east and can be reached by car ferry from the town in under ten minutes. Noss lies off the east coast of Bressay. Both islands feature striking landscapes, abundant bird life, coastal mammals and wild flowers. Essay Contest Judging? Bressay has almost everything that Shetland can offer the visitor: a ten minute ferry ride whisks you from the bustling centre of Lerwick to essays thomas macaulay another world. You will find seabird cliffs, quiet bays, hill and coastal walks, a dozen freshwater lochs (many with good trout) and a profusion of archaeological and historical sites. The east side of the island is sparsely inhabited, a place of peace and essay contest, quiet where birds and sheep wander undisturbed. The Bressay ferry sails from Albert Buildings in the centre of Lerwick every hour, with later sailings scheduled on Friday and Saturday nights. The ferry berths in Bressay right next to the Bressay Heritage Centre which features seasonal exhibitions on the culture, history and natural heritage of the island. The centre is essays, open part time from May to September. Much of Bressay is accessible by car on essays speeding is bad the single-track roads which radiate from the shop and post office at Mail (the place-name means the sands and thomas macaulay, long pre-dates the Royal Mail). The side roads are rough tracks unsuitable for cars and the best way to enjoy the wild east side of the island is on foot.

The south-eastern corner in particular has some fine walking country but is nowhere more than three miles from the centre of Lerwick. Bressay shelters Lerwick harbour from the North Sea and for graduate school applications many centuries Bressay Sound has been a port of essays thomas, refuge for shipping, since long before Lerwick was founded in the 17th century. This natural harbour and the unique strategic position of Bressay's highest hill, the Ward of Bressay (742'/258m), gave the island special significance from prehistoric times. From the summit, all of the essayes, Shetland is visible: on a clear day, with binoculars, you can see through the natural arch in essays the Gaada Stack on Foula, away to the west, in the Atlantic; to essays is bad the north-east lie Out Skerries; to the north Ronas Hill and Saxa Vord (Unst); and to the south Sumburgh Head. As our prehistoric and Viking ancestors would have noticed, you can also see Fair Isle; from there, as they'd also have discovered, you can see Orkney; and from Orkney you can see mainland Scotland. A thriving local history group A boating club Shop Pub Community hall where visitors are always welcome at concerts, dances, social evenings and the annual Up Helly A' fire festival in macaulay February. Bressay is also home to the Northern Lights Holistic Spa where a variety of facilities and essay judging criteria, treatments are available.

There is essays, plenty of on why is bad, birdlife to see in Bressay, including most of the essays, species found in Noss. The south eastern corner of the island includes the Puffin cliffs of the Ord and has a breeding colony of several hundred Great Skua around the loch at Sand Vatn as well as breeding Dunlin, Common Sandpiper, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel, Golden Plover and other moorland birds. The Merlin is essays on plato's of the cave, sometimes seen and occasional sightings of Peregrine falcons, once a regular breeding bird, have been reported. Spring and autumn bring Bressay its share of thomas, migrating birds. Great flocks of Redwing and on why speeding is bad, Fieldfare can be seen and the island has some rarities on its checklist including a Surf Scoter from North America. In winter the lochs are used by thomas parties of up to a dozen Whooper Swans. Turnstone, Purple Sandpiper, Great Northern Diver, Grey Heron, Long tailed Duck, Widgeon, Teal, Tufted Duck and essay contest judging criteria, Goldeneye are common winter visitors.

The native mammals are Otter, Grey Seal and Common Seal. Rabbits, hedgehogs, rats, mice (and sheep!) have all been introduced by humans over the centuries. There are no snakes or other reptiles but introduced frogs thrive. Bressay's breeding list also includes: The road north from thomas macaulay, Maryfield passes Bressay's most imposing building, Gardie House, a laird's mansion built in 1724 and noted for its walled gardens. Another little road north passes through the ross mba essays, crofting hamlet of Crueton (with its very 'birdy' copse of willows) and over the hill to the townships of Beosetter and macaulay, Gunnista, overlooking Aith Voe which is one of the best birdwatching spots in the island, noted for waders, divers and sea ducks. Is Bad? Beosetter has a fine, sandy beach and Gunnista is the site of the ruined chapel of St Olaf, with an interesting graveyard. Essays? The Bressay Kirk is speeding is bad, a delightful little church with 19th century stained glass windows and two handsome memorial tablets to macaulay local landlords. For times of services and to view the interior, visitors should contact the minister of Lerwick and Bressay Parish Church at St Columba's Manse, St Olaf St., Lerwick (Lerwick 692125). South from the Mail Shop the road winds past modern housing at Glebe Park and Fullaburn to the Bressay Lighthouse on Kirkabister Ness. Built in 1858 by Robert Louis Stevenson's father, the light is now automatic. The old lightkeepers' cottages are available as self-catering holiday accommodation.

In the essays on plato's cave, dramatic geo (cove) below the lighthouse the Lithuanian factory trawler Lunokhods was wrecked in macaulay a 1993 storm. All 60 crew were rescued by the Shetland Coastguard Helicopter and Lerwick Lifeboat. The wreck site is now a popular dive with visiting scuba enthusiasts, lying next to a beautiful rock arch, Da Ovluss. The old kirkyard lies partly over a ruined broch. Here was found the Bressay Stone, apparently the memorial to the daughter of a Pictish chieftain, Naddod, and inscribed with Ogham script which has never been fully deciphered. Essay Contest? There is a replica on site but the original is stored in the new Museum of Scotland at Edinburgh. Safety First - Remember, all the cliffs are extremely dangerous, particularly in the wet. On no account should you attempt to climb them or approach the essays, edge nearer than two metres (six feet). Heed The Birds - Please be careful not to walk through nesting colonies of gulls and terns or you may cause them to desert their eggs. No Dogs, Please! - The owners and tenants of the land have given permission for the essayes these recommended walks to be included in this guide, on condition that visitors do not bring their dogs, even on a leash.

The best behaved dog can disturb livestock and wildlife and you are respectfully asked to comply with the farmers' and crofters' wishes. Essays Macaulay? Drop by the Bressay Heritage Centre and delve into the island's history Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Bressay Noss (.pdf) A short walk up the Burn of Setter is a good place for a close look at the distinctive, vertical-shaft Shetland watermills. There are several on this burn and contest, many more throughout Bressay. Once an essential part of every crofting community, these miniature mills have long fallen into decay but there is a restored one in working order at the Dunrossness Crofthouse Museum. A walk around the west shore of the Voe of Culbinsbrough brings you to the old stone and slate quarries in Aith Ness, topped by the remains of a six-inch naval gun from the First World War. Essays Thomas? Like the gun on Bard Head at the southern tip of contest criteria, Bressay, this one was installed in essays macaulay the last year of the allegory, war and essays, was never fired in anger. Mba Essays? If you have only a little time in Shetland, one of the best ways to sample most of macaulay, what the islands have to offer is to paper display research spend a day on this glorious walk round the uninhabited coast and hills between Noss Sound and the Bressay Lighthouse, taking in some of the thomas macaulay, wildest scenery in the islands. Follow the tarmac road to Noss Sound and then head south along the coast, past the volcanic vent of the Muckle Hell and the essayes, its colony of Herring Gulls, until you come to essays thomas macaulay the waterfall below the ruined watermill on the burn from the Loch of Grimsetter. The boulder beach of Grutwick usually has Grey Seals fishing just offshore.

At Grutwick there is a stone cairn erected by the people of Bressay to essays commemorate the bravery of Coastguard helicopter winchman, William Deacon, who lost his life while rescuing the Norwegian freighter Green Lily which foundered here during a Force 11 storm in November 1997. Thomas? Turning inland, the deserted hamlet of Wadbister has a prehistoric earthhouse. Across the Loch of Grimsetter is the croft of Gorie, an thin display, oasis of trees and thomas, bushes in the hill. South of Wadbister the cliff walk gives superb views of caves and natural arches, including the the essayes, remarkable triple arch of the Stoura Clettstack - another favourite haul-out for Common Seals. Here too is the ruined medieval settlement of Stobister, where legend has it that the inhabitants fled when a violent storm sent fish raining down the chimneys - perhaps the essays thomas, same tidal wave that opened Noss Sound. Essays Speeding? Walking on past the macaulay, collapsed sea cave of the Gore's Kirn you come to the breeding territory of Great Skuas and Arctic Skuas; then the wild, lonely loch of Sand Vatn where Red-throated Divers nest (please avoid disturbance). Beyond are the applications, cliffs of essays thomas macaulay, Bard Head and the old WWI gun still standing on its concrete plinth. Two hundred feet (61m) below is the tide race of the Bard a strom, a favourite fishing ground for Gannets and other seabirds.

From here to the 400 foot (122m) Ord cliffs there are panoramic views of southern Shetland. The Ord is Fulmar territory, with thousands of these graceful birds wheeling in the updraft, but here and in many corners of the Bressay cliffs you will also see Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills and Tysties. From the Ord there's an easy walk down to the lighthouse, through the ruined crofts of Scrana and Daal. Once back on the tarmac, you have a pleasant three mile stroll past crofts and graduate, fields to the Lerwick ferry by the Maryfield pub. Noss - The Perfect Island For Birds. As soon as you set eyes on the mile-long seabird cliffs of Noss you can see why the island was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1955: this is one of the essays, most spectacular wildlife sights anywhere. At the peak of the breeding season the stupendous chorus of essays on plato's of the cave, around 150,000 birds and chicks is unforgettable - as is the smell of the guano which stains the essays thomas, cliffs white! In the words of National Geographic photographer Franz Lanting: This is a world-class cliff. Millions of years of wind and ice have honeycombed thousands of school, nesting ledges in sandstone cliffs up to essays macaulay 592 feet (181m) high. As a result, many different species can find nest sites of the school essays, preferred size and essays macaulay, shape.

Although not the biggest seabird colony in Britain, Noss is the research, most accessible one, combining very large numbers of birds with a wide variety of species and spectacular scenery. The cliffs are only one of the essays thomas macaulay, Noss wildlife habitats: there's also extensive moorland, boulder beaches, sandy beaches, rich grazing and former cultivated land, all of which support other birds and essays on why speeding is bad, animals. Essays Macaulay? Resident seals and the visiting Otters feed in the dense kelp forest surrounding the 711-acre (313 hectare) island. The spectacle of: festooned over a mile of cliffs, up to 592’ (181m) high, is simply astounding, as is the roar of the mass ‘choir’ parents and chicks. There are two very different ways to experience Noss and many visitors choose to do both: Excursion boat from Lerwick. Contest Judging Criteria? This is easily the best way to essays thomas macaulay view most of the seabird nesting sites at close range (and the essays speeding, only way when the island is closed to visitors) but it doesn't include a landing on Noss. If you have mobility problems you can still see this wonder of the wildlife world: wheelchair users are welcome on a highly manoeuvrable boat with twin engines which can take you safely into the coves, right alongside the lower cliff ledges and, in calm weather, even into the Cave of Noss, with an underwater camera to explore the essays macaulay, kelp forest as well. Details of daily sailings from the of the cave, VisitScotland Information Centre, phone 01595 693434.

The Noss Sound ferry operates five-days-a-week (not Mondays or Thursdays) during the summer season (late April - late August) while the wardens are living on the island. You first take the Bressay ferry from Lerwick, then walk or drive the three miles (5km) across Bressay to Noss Sound where the ferry, a small inflatable boat with an thomas, outboard motor, will take you across the narrow sound to the Noss landing place at Gungstie. For more information or to book, phone: 0800 107 7818. Arctic sandstorms and giant waves. In addition to its ornithological importance, Noss is also of allegory cave, great geological interest. It is made of the same Devonian desert sandstones as Bressay but slightly finer-grained. Essays Macaulay? The cliff face is usually a zone of rapid weathering due to a number of processes that can attack it.

There are three types of weathering: physical (eg. frost actions), chemical (involves hydrolysis) and biological (eg. growth of graduate school, lichen or large amounts of essays thomas, guano). The products of weathering and weakened rocks are quickly removed by storm wave action. This causes roughened surfaces where further etching out of other rocks units is easy. The extraordinary erosion patterns are now favoured as seabird nesting sites. Noss Sound is a relatively new channel and was probably made by storm waves that breached the paper research, sandy spit that once joined Noss to Bressay. A clue is that the name Noss is a Viking word meaning 'headland shaped like a nose'. If it had been an thomas, island when they arrived in the ninth century they would certainly have recorded the fact in thin their name for essays thomas macaulay the place and it would be 'Nossay' - 'island shaped like a nose'. There are physical traces of a gigantic wave along the ross, Bressay coast south of Noss Sound, and also a legend of a clifftop croft washed out by the sea at Stobister.

Because the grazing on Noss is restricted (and because even Shetland sheep can't find their way everywhere) the cliff vegetation of Noss is more luxuriant than in more heavily grazed areas, despite the plague of rabbits which each winter's cull only just keeps in check. In early summer, as the Sea Pinks and blue Spring Squill fade, the thomas macaulay, cliffs present a palette of school essays, white Sea Campion and Scurvy Grass, Red Campion, yellow Birdsfoot Trefoil and Roseroot and the distinctive blue of Sheep's Bit Scabious, to set off the brown Heather moorland with its patches of Cotton Grass, Lousewort and orchids. As well as its fascinating natural history, Noss has a long history of human occupation, starting with a burnt mound at Hellia Cluve which may be 4,000 years old. Thomas Macaulay? Place name evidence and the remains of judging criteria, a mediaeval chapel on Big Ness ('promontory of the buildings') suggest that Noss was home to a Celtic Christian community before the Viking invasion. What those marauders did to the priests in thomas macaulay Papil Geo ('the Priests' Cove') may be imagined. From time to time, winter storms shift the sands at Nesti Voe to reveal human bones from the ancient graveyard. The sandy soils around the 17th century house at Hametoun were easy to work - and to fertilise with seaweed from beaches such as Da Stinkin' Geos ('the smelly coves' where storm-blown seaweed lies and rots to school applications this day). In subsistence times Noss was a very productive island, where good crops of oats and barley could grow and the grazing was so good there was even a milk surplus to make cheese.

From the mid-18th century onwards, whenever the tenancy became vacant there were usually eager bidders. Signs of thomas, that relative prosperity are still visible in the long, slightly curved 'rigs' on the essayes Turr Ness - the traces of ploughing by oxen which were swum across the sound from Bressay at low tide and herded at night in Da Owsen's Pund (the oxen's enclosure') at thomas the north end of the big cliffs. In those days ordinary people tilled the ground with spades, not ploughs and oxen. By the early 19th century there was a second settlement on Noss, at Setter, half way between the low-lying western end of the isle and the cliffs to the east. By 1861 the graduate applications, population peaked at 24, but may have included some visiting fishermen who spent the census night in summer lodges at Booth's Voe.

From 1871 to 1900 the Marquis of Londonderry took a lease of Noss to breed Shetland Ponies for his County Durham coal mines. A display in essays macaulay the old Pony Pund tells the on plato's of the, story of this rather cruel trade, which also involved building a stone wall around the higher cliffs to stop the mares falling over. The stallions were kept in Bressay until required. Successive farming tenants and their families lived year-round in Noss until 1939. After that it was occupied in thomas macaulay summer only until 1969 when the last resident tenant (who was also honorary RSPB birdwatcher and ferryman) gave up the judging criteria, lease. Since 1970 the island has been part of the Garth Estate's home farm and essays thomas macaulay, staffed by essay contest criteria summer wardens who also provide the essays macaulay, ferry service across Noss Sound. Essays On Why? Noss is open to visitors during the summer (except on Mondays and essays macaulay, Thursdays) and closed in winter (September to mid-May) Boat trips which don't land on the island can visit Noss on any day of the year if the weather is suitable. In the summer season a warden is usually on duty at the Noss visitor centre to answer any questions. It is also possible to arrange guided tours with groups. If the weather's too bad for the Scottish Natural Heritage ferry to cross Noss Sound the essays speeding is bad, wardens hoist a red flag outside their house but to avoid disappointment you should check with the VisitScotland Information Centre before setting out for Noss.

If going to Noss by the Noss Sound ferry, be sure to wear sensible footwear - the rocks on essays macaulay both sides of the sound can be slippery. Take warm, waterproof clothing, as the weather on Noss can be very changeable. Visitors' dogs are not welcome. Even well-trained dogs can disturb wildlife and sheep. Don't leave litter - it can kill or maim wildlife. Don't take plants, eggs, birds or animals - only photos. Ross School? Stick to the shore path and essays thomas, don't disturb nesting birds, particularly Arctic Skuas. Essays On Plato's Of The Cave? If nesting Bonxies dive-bomb you on the moor, check that you haven't strayed from the perimeter track and, if you have, retrace your steps.

Hold a stick above your head or wave your arms to deter the skuas - they're only defending their nests - and you'd do the same if some hairy monster invaded your child's bedroom! For more information see the SNH Noss website. Contact: Scottish Natural Heritage, Ground Floor, Stewart. Building, Alexandra Wharf, Lerwick, Shetland. ZE1 0LL.

Telephone +44 (0)1595 693345.

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Info Ajang Aktualisasi u/ Semuanya, nih! Dalam rangka memperingati Hari Pramuka 14 Agustus 2011 yang sekaligus merupakan HUT ke-50 Gerakan Pramuka, Kwartir Nasional Gerakan Pramuka menyelenggarakan lomba karya tulis dan lomba foto tentang kepramukaan bagi wartawan dan umum. Lomba karya tulis dan lomba foto tentang kepramukaan bagi wartawan dan umum Tahun 2011 ini pelaksanaannya dikaitkan dengan penyelenggaraan peringatan Tahun Emas “50 Tahun Gerakan Pramuka” pada bulan Agustus 2011 dengan tema “Satu Pramuka Untuk Satu Indonesia, Jayalah Indonesia”. Karya tulis yang telah dimuat pada surat kabar/media cetak dan media online dan karya foto dalam kurun waktu 22 Februari s.d 10 Juli 2011 dihimpun dan dikirim kepada panitia pelaksana, Biro Abdimas dan Humas Kwarnas Gerakan Pramuka, Jl. Thomas? Medan Merdeka Timur 6, Jakarta Pusat 10110 paling lambat tanggal 15 Juli 2011. The Essayes? Sedangkan ketentuan umum dan ketentuan khusus lomba karya tulis dan lomba foto tentang kepramukaan bagi wartawan dan umum, terlampir. Essays? Informasi Selengkapnya Di : Kami yakin dan percaya, bahwa Saudara pun peduli terhadap pembinaan kaum muda Indonesia. School Applications Essays? Oleh karena itu, sangat kami harapkan bantuan untuk menginformasikan dan mempublikasikan pelaksanaan lomba serta menyediakan kolom baik di media cetak dan media online kepada wartawan dan penulis untuk menuangkan karya tulisnya. Thomas Macaulay? Informasi Selengkapnya Di : Pemenangnya akan diumumkan pada acara Upacara Hari Pramuka tanggal 14 Agustus 2011 di Jakarta yang direncanakan dihadiri oleh Presiden RI selaku Ketua Majelis Pembimbing Nasional Gerakan Pramuka (Kamabinas).

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Karya dikirimkan dalam amplop tertutup (khusus untuk yang diikutkan dalam lomba foto, karya yang dikirimkan tidak boleh dilipat) ke alamat : Panitia Lomba Karya Tulis dan Lomba Foto Kepramukaan, Kwartir Nasional Gerakan Pramuka, Jalan Medan Merdeka Timur No.6 Jakarta 10110 . The Essayes? Semua karya diterima oleh panitia paling lambat tanggal 15 Juli 2011. Thomas? Semua karya yang masuk dan memenuhi ketentuan umum serta ketentuan khusus, akan dinilai oleh dewan juri yang berkompeten. Paper Thin Research? Keputusan dewan juri adalah final dan tidak diadakan surat-menyurat untuk membahas keputusan tersebut. Macaulay? Semua karya yang masuk menjadi milik Kwartir Nasional Gerakan Pramuka, namun hak cipta tetap pada pembuat karya. Paper Display Research? Informasi Selengkapnya Di :

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Informasi Selengkapnya Di : II. The Essayes? Lomba Foto Kepramukan : Foto yang dilombakan adalah foto cetak warna berukuran 10R (20 x 27 cm) dan dibuat dalam kurun waktu 2010-2011. Essays Thomas? Olah digital hanya diperbolehkan sebatas cropping, adjustment brightness/contrast, dan rotate canvas. Essays? Foto dicetak di atas kertas foto warna doff dan belum pernah diikutkan dalam lomba foto lainnya. Thomas Macaulay? Foto yang berhasil dimuat di media massa cetak antara 22 Februari 2011 sampai 10 Juli 2011 akan mendapatkan nilai tambah tersendiri dari dewan juri.

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Mengirim kembali formulir pendaftaran yang telah diisi lengkap ke e-mail panitia dengan melampirkan: – Hasil scan bukti transfer untuk biaya pendaftaran. – Fotokopi Kartu Tanda Mahasiswa dari masing-masing peserta. Essays Thomas Macaulay? cari informasi di 3. Mba Essays? Pembayaran dilakukan via transfer ke rekening. PENGUMPULAN PROPOSAL DAN HASIL PERHITUNGAN. Waktu pengumpulan paling lambat 22 April 2011 (diterima oleh panitia) dengan alamat pengiriman : Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta. Gedung Thomas Aquinas, Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta Jalan. Babarsari 44 Yogyakarta 55281. Peserta dapat mengirimkan proposal dan hasil perhitungan melalui email panitia terlebih dahulu jika diinginkan. Lima peserta terbaik akan dihubungi oleh panitia via e-mail, blog HMS, dan SMS pada tanggal 27 April 2011 dan diundang untuk melakukan presentasi di hadapan dewan juri pada tanggal 5 Mei 2011. Hari,Tanggal : Kamis, 5 Mei 2011.

Tempat: Gedung Thomas Aquinas Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta Jalan Babarsari 44, Yogyakarta 55281. • Kelompok yang tidak hadir dalam presentasi akan dianggap GUGUR. Macaulay? cari informasi di • Pemenang akan diumumkan keesokan harinya; Jumat, 6 Mei 2011 pada saat acara penutupan Civil Engineering’s Days 2011 yang berlangsung di halaman Gedung Thomas Aquinas, Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta, Jalan Babarsari 44, Yogyakarta. • Keputusan dewan juri adalah mutlak dan tidak dapat diganggu gugat. Pemenang akan mendapatkan penghargaan sebagai berikut : Juara I : Rp 3.000.000,- + Trophy + Piagam. Juara II : Rp 2.000.000,- + Trophy + Piagam. Juara II : Rp 1.000.000,- + Trophy + Piagam. 1. Of Business? Potret Keluarga Muslim dalam Tatanan Masyarakat Islami. 2. Macaulay? Cintailah Orang Tua, Niscaya Kau Tersenyum dalam SurgaNya. 3. Contest Judging? Jalan Cinta Muslim Sejati, Ketika Lawan Jenis Menarik Hati. 1. Thomas Macaulay? Peserta beragama Islam dan berusia 16-30 tahun.

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d. Is Bad? Formulir pendaftaran peserta essai. e. Thomas? Lembar Pernyataan Orisinalitas Karya (dapat didownload di 3. On Plato's Allegory Of The Cave? Naskah dimasukkan ke dalam amplop tertutup, di sudut kiri atas amplop ditulisi “ISLAMIC ESSAY COMPETITION 2011”; 4. Essays Macaulay? Naskah dalam bentuk soft file dikirim ke alamat email dengan nama file IEC_NAMA PESERTA_3 KATA AWAL JUDUL KARYA. Contoh : IEC_IRWAN N_MENCINTAI ORANG TUA. 5.Pengiriman naskah mulai 4 April 2011 dan paling lambat masuk ke kesekretariatan panitia tanggal 2 Mei 2011. 1. Ross School Mba Essays? Penilaian dilakukan oleh 2 (dua) juri yang berkompeten.

2. Essays Macaulay? Proses penilaian dilakukan dari tanggal 3 Mei 2011 sampai 14 Mei 2011. 3. Essays On Plato's Allegory Of The? Keputusan dewan juri bersifat mutlak dan tidak dapat diganggu gugat. 4. Thomas? Tiga (3) finalis akan diumumkan tanggal 16 Mei 2011 melalui e-mail finalis dan website_ Essays Allegory Of The? Ketiga finalis akan diundang dalam Seminar Nasional “METAMORPHOSA : Meraih Jannah dengan Mahabbah” tanggal 22 Mei 2011 sekaligus pengumuman pemenang dan penyerahan hadiah (Panitia hanya menyediakan tiket masuk seminar). Hal yang dijadikan dasar penilaian juri adalah: a. Essays Thomas Macaulay? Orisinalitas karya. b. Allegory Of The Cave? Kesesuaian lingkup eksplorasi tema. c.Argumentasi yang dituangkan dalam eksplorasi tema. d. Essays Macaulay? Ketajaman analisis. e.Kualitas penyampaian pesan/komunikasi dan gaya penulisan.

Juara I : uang Rp 500.000 +trofi + sertifikat juara. Juara II : uang Rp 400.000 +trofi + sertifikat juara. Juara III : uang Rp 300.000 +trofi + sertifikat juara. Akhwat Syifa 08568155806. MERAIH JANNAH DENGAN MAHABBAH. A. Applications? RUANG LINGKUP.

Konsep seorang muslim/ah dalam mengelola fitroh cintanya dengan mengedepankan cinta tertinggi kepada Allah ketika mengalami romantika cinta dengan dunia (harta, tahta, keluarga, keturunan, atau pun ketertarikan dengan lawan jenis). 1.Peserta beragama Islam dan berusia 16-30 tahun. 2.Peserta lomba bisa individu atau berkelompok (2 orang) 1. Essays Thomas Macaulay? Pendaftaran peserta paling lambat 24 April 2011. 2. On Plato's? Peserta melakukan pengiriman biaya pendaftaran sebesar Rp 20.000,00 melalui transfer ke Bank Tabungan Negara (BTN) No. Essays Thomas? Rek 0019101510015142 Atas nama Nita Prasasti. 3. The Essayes? Peserta dapat mendaftarkan diri dengan cara mengirimkan formulir pendaftaran dan hasil scan bukti pembayaran melalui e-mail ke alamat dengan menuliskan Islamic Poster Competition sebagai subject/judul (formulir dapat didownload di 4. Thomas Macaulay? Uang pendaftaran dari peserta tidak digunakan untuk hadiah pemenang. 5. Display Research? Panitia akan mengkonfirmasi pendaftaran melalui pesan singkat (sms atau e-mail).

D. Thomas? KETENTUAN KARYA. 1. Ross School Of Business? Tema : “Meraih Jannah dengan Mahabbah” 2. Essays Thomas? Poster harus memenuhi kriteria berikut ini : b. Graduate School Applications Essays? mudah dilihat. 3. Thomas Macaulay? Tidak diperkenankan menggunakan gambar manusia atau binatang kecuali gambar tersebut tidak ditampilkan wajahnya (tidak ada ilustrasi hidung, mulut, dan mata). 4. Display? Judul poster bebas. 5. Essays Macaulay? Ukutan poster : A2.

6. Graduate School? Jenis Kertas : Kertas Foto Glossy. 7. Essays Thomas? Desain poster menggunakan cetak digital, menggunakan software Corel Draw atau Photoshop. 8. Paper Display? Jumlah warna bebas. 9. Essays Thomas? Peserta memberikan deskripsi singkat tentang posternya, dengan ketentuan:kertas A4, sebanyak 1 halaman, spasi 1,5 lines, Times News Roman ukuran 12, margins: batas atas: 3, batas kiri: 4, batas bawah: 3, batas kanan: 3. 10.Panitia memiliki hak dan wewenang untuk memperbanyak dan mempublikasikan naskah essay dengan tetap mencantumkan nama penulisnya.

1. Criteria? Peserta menyerahkan 1 soft file dalam bentuk CD dan 1 print out thomas macaulay A2 serta diskripsi singkat rangkap dua. 2. Essay? Semua file (soft file poster (jpg. Thomas Macaulay? dan masternya), deskripsi, biodata) dimasukkan dalam folder dengan nama “IPC_NAMA PESERTA_JUDUL”. Contoh : IPC_SATRIA A_WARNA WARNI. 3.Kiriman naskah harus dilengkapi dengan : a. On Plato's Of The Cave? Biodata lengkap pembuat. b. Essays Macaulay? 1 lembar foto copy KTP/Kartu Pelajar/Kartu Mahasiswa. c. School Applications? 1 (satu) lembar foto terbaru ukuran 3?4. d. Essays Macaulay? Formulir pendaftaran peserta. e. Speeding? 1 lembar pernyataan orisinilitas karya (dapat didownload di

4. Thomas? Karya poster dimasukkan ke dalam amplop tertutup, di sudut kiri atas amplop ditulisi “ISLAMIC POSTER COMPETITION 2011”; 5. The Essayes? Karya poster dikirim langsung atau via pos ke : Sekretariat Panitia Islamic Essay and macaulay Poster Competition 2011. Mushola Asy-Syifa’ Fakultas Kedokteran UNS. Jl. Mba Essays? Ir. Essays Thomas? Sutami 36A, Kentingan, Jebres. Surakarta, Jawa Tengah 57126. 6.Pengiriman karya poster mulai 4 April 2011 dan paling lambat masuk ke kesekretariatan panitia tanggal 2 Mei 2011. 1. Allegory? Penilaian dilakukan oleh 2 (dua) juri yang berkompeten. 2. Essays Thomas Macaulay? Proses penilaian dilakukan dari tanggal3 Mei 2011 sampai 14 Mei 2011.

3. Applications Essays? Keputusan dewan juri bersifat mutlak dan tidak dapat diganggu gugat. 4. Thomas? Tiga (3) finalis akan diumumkan tanggal 16 Mei 2011 melalui e-mail finalis dan website_ School Of Business Mba Essays? Ketiga finalis akan diundang dalam Seminar Nasional “METAMORPHOSA : Meraih Jannah dengan Mahabbah” tanggal 22 Mei 2011 sekaligus pengumuman pemenang dan penyerahan hadiah (Panitia hanya menyediakan tiket masuk seminar). 5.Hal yang dijadikan dasar penilaian juri adalah: a. Essays? Orisinalitas karya. b. Essay Criteria? Kesesuaian antara tema, lingkup eksplorasi tema dengan konsep desain. c. Essays Macaulay? Kualitas penyampaian pesan/komunikasi.

d. Graduate School Applications? Inovasi serta kualitas artistik penyajian visual. e. Essays Thomas Macaulay? Diskripsi singkat poster. Juara I : uang Rp 500.000 +trofi + sertifikat juara. Juara II : uang Rp 400.000 +trofi + sertifikat juara. Juara III : uang Rp 300.000 +trofi + sertifikat juara. H. Graduate? CONTACT PERSON. Musholla Asy-Syifa FK UNS. Ir. Essays Thomas? Sutami 36A, Kentingan, Jebres, Surakarta.

Jawa Tengah 57126. Di samping telah melanggar HAM, pun menimbulkan kerusakan dan punahnya fasilitas publik, matinya roda pemerintahan dan aktivitas normal peradaban manusia. Graduate School Applications Essays? Aspek-aspek kebudayaan dan kesenian yang dimiliki sebuah bangsa juga bisa punah akibat terjadinya konflik-konflik tersebut. Thomas Macaulay? Pada saat bersamaan, perekonomian dunia menjadi kacau, rakyat di berbagai negara menjadi semakin menderita, anak-anak menjadi yatim-piatu dan tidak terurus baik pendidikan maupun pertumbuhannya. On Why? Yang menikmati keuntungan dari adanya peperangan, mungkin hanya segelintir pihak (personal, kelompok maupun negara). Macaulay? Yakni negara-negara maju pengekspor senjata-senjata militer dan pesawat tempur. Terbuka untuk seluruh Warga Negara Indonesia (WNI) tanpa kecuali, domisili di dalam negeri maupun di luar negeri, bersifat perorangan, yang dibagi dalam 2 (dua) kelompok lomba : SISWA SLTP/SLTA dan MAHASISWA . Thin? Mendaftarakan diri menjadi Pewarta Warga di Koran Online Pewarta Indonesia (KOPI) pada situs Thomas? Bagi yang belum terdaftar silahkan klik DI SINI untuk mendaftarkan diri. Speeding? Artikel di Publish : Tema artikel : “Hubungan Persahabatan RI-Maroko: Dulu, Kini dan Besok”. Essays Thomas Macaulay? Judul bebas. School Of Business Mba Essays? Isi artikel dapat berkaitan dengan berbagai dimensi, seperti sosial-budaya, pendidikan, sejarah, masyarakat, ekonomi, politik, pertahanan-keamanan, peran di dunia internasional, dan sebagainya.

Setiap peserta lomba boleh mengirimkan lebih dari satu naskah. Essays Macaulay? Tulisan asli (orisinil) bukan saduran, ditulis dalam bahasa populer, dan menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dengan baik dan benar sesuai dengan EYD. The Essayes? Kutipan diperbolehkan tidak lebih dari 20% dan wajib mencantumkan sumber referensinya. Essays Macaulay? Naskah diketik dengan jenis huruf Time News Roman (TNR), ukuran 12, spasi 1, dengan panjang artikel populer antara 800 s/d 1.200 kata saja. The Essayes? Pada akhir tulisan dicantumkan identitas lengkap penulis meliputi nama, tempat/tanggal lahir, nama sekolah/universitas, alamat sekolah/universitas, alamat rumah, nomor telepon seluler dan/atau nomor telpon rumah (bila ada), alamat e-mail, dan akun facebook atau friendster atau lainnya. Essays Macaulay? Pengiriman naskah artikel hanya dapat diterima Panitia melalui surat elektronik (e-mail) saja ke : dan/atau On Plato's Allegory Of The Cave? Panitia tidak melayani penerimaan naskah dan surat-menyurat secara konvensional (kantor pos atau jasa pengiriman lainnya). Macaulay? Bagi yang tidak memiliki email dan/atau akses internet, dapat menitipkan kepada orang lain dengan tetap mencantumkan identitas diri penulis. Applications Essays? Seluruh naskah lomba harus disertai kartu identitas siswa/mahasiswa (atau surat keterangan siswa/mahasiswa dari sekolah/kampus) dan sudah diterima Panitia antara tanggal 1 April s/d 30 Juni 2011 (Pukul 24.00 WIB) . Thomas? Penjurian akan dilakukan dari tanggal 1 Juli sampai 18 Juli 2011, sedangkan pengumuman pemenang akan dilakukan pada tanggal 20 Juli 2011. DEWAN JURI DAN KETERANGAN LAINNYA. Juri lomba adalah WILSON LALENGKE, S.Pd, M.Sc, MA (Ketua Umum PPWI), TEGUH SANTOSA, MA (Ketua Umum Sahabat Maroko), Imam Suwandi, S.Sos (Penulis, Editor Senior MetroTV), DAMHURI MUHAMMAD (Esais, Cerpenis, Kritikus), DIANING WIDYA YUDHISTIRA (Novelis), SUPADIYANTO, S.Sos.I (Editor dan Kolumnis berbagai media cetak lokal dan nasional), dan MUHAMMAD SUBHAN (Jurnalis dan Novelis).

Keputusan Dewan Juri adalah absolut (mutlak) dan tak bisa diganggu gugat. The Essayes? Seluruh naskah yang dikirimkan ke pihak panitia akan dipublikasikan segera di Koran Online Pewarta Indonesia (KOPI) di situs: atas nama akun penulis. Thomas? Hak publikasi dan penggunaan artikel untuk kepentingan kemanusiaan, pendidikan, persahabatan, dan sosial budaya menjadi milik PPWI Nasional. The Essayes? Penyerahan hadiah akan dilakukan pada tanggal 30 Juli 2011 bertepatan dengan perayaan Hari Nasional Kerajaan Maroko, di Jakarta. Essays Thomas? Pemenang I, II, III diundang ke Jakarta oleh dan atas biaya Kedubes Maroko bagi pemenang yang domisili di dalam negeri (Pemenang yang berdomisili di luar negeri saat penyerahan hadiah hanya akan dikirimkan ke alamat yang diinginkan pemenang). Tropi Juara I dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Laptop + Menginap 2 malam di hotel bintang 5 di Jakarta + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lainnya bagi 2 orang Pemenang I. Essays Is Bad? Tropi Juara II dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Camera Professional + Menginap 2 malam di hotel bintang 5 di Jakarta + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lainnya bagi 2 orang Pemenang II. Essays Thomas? Tropi Juara III dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Camera Digital + Menginap 2 malam di hotel bintang 5 di Jakarta + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lainnya bagi 2 orang Pemenang III. Essays Speeding Is Bad? Tropi Juara Harapan I dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Tabanas Rp. Essays? 1.000.000,- + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lain bagi 2 orang Pemenang Harapan I. Essays Is Bad? Tropi Juara Harapan II dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Tabanas Rp. Thomas? 750.000,- + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lain bagi 2 orang Pemenang Harapan II. Ross? Tropi Juara III dan Sertifikat dari Dubes Maroko untuk Indonesia + Tabanas Rp.

500.000,- + Sertifikat dari PPWI + hadiah sponsor lain bagi 2 orang Pemenang Harapan III. Thomas? Sebanyak 111 (seratus sebelas) naskah terbaik akan dipublikasikan dalam bentuk buku oleh pihak Kedutaan Besar Maroko. Essays On Why? Tulisan yang tidak terpilih akan dicantumkan judul tulisan bersama penulisnya di daftar lampiran. Macaulay? Sebagai apresiasi positif, seluruh peserta lomba mendapatkan piagam penghargaan (dalam bentuk soft-copy) dari PPWI Nasional dan Kedubes Maroko di Jakarta. Nah inilah kesempatan emas untuk membuktikan kepedulian Anda dalam ikut andil menciptakan hubungan siklikal yang apik antara RI-Maroko, dan jika Anda beruntung bakal mendapatkan hadiah-hadiah menarik di atas! Jl. Essays? Danau Diatas No. Essays Macaulay? 94 Bendungan Hilir, Jakarta Pusat 10210, Phone 021-5705101, Fax 021-5742554 dan/atau Jl. Paper Display Research? Anggrek Cendrawasih X, Blok K No. Macaulay? 27B, Kemanggisan, Palmerah, Jakarta Barat 11840.

Call/SMS Center: 081380162929 (Popi Rahim), 081371051875 (Wina). The Essayes? e-mail: dan Mahasiswa Ilmu Ekonomi–Sumber Daya Alam Lingkungan.